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武汉大学考博英语历年真题及详解

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武汉大学考博英语历年真题及详解

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[电子书]武汉大学考博英语历年真题及详解


目录

封面

内容简介

目录

2002年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

2003年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

2004年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

2005年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

2006年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

2007年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

2008年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

2009年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

2010年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

2011年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

2012年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

2013年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

2014年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

2015年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

2016年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

隐藏内容简介

《武汉大学考博英语历年真题及详解》由圣才考研网组织人员严格按照武汉大学考博英语考试大纲精心编写而成。本书收录2002~2016年考博真题,并提供全部试题的参考答案及详解。本书中的解题思路清晰、答案翔实,帮助广大考生在熟练掌握知识点的同时,能够熟练运用各种题型的答题技巧,以提高应试技巧,把握答题节奏,增强自信心,提高考试分数。

隐藏试读(部分内容)

2002年武汉大学考博英语真题及详解

Part I Reading Comprehension(30%)

Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some question or unfinished statements .For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C, D, You should decide on the best choice and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets.

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage:

From the health point of view we are living in a marvelous age. We are immunized from birth against many of the most dangerous disease. A large number of once fatal illnesses can now be cured by modern drugs and surgery. It is almost certain that one day remedies will be found for the most stubborn remaining disease. The expectation of life has increased enormously. But though the possibility of living a long and happy life is greater than ever before, every day we witness the incredible slaughter of them, women and children on the roads Man versus the motor-car! It is a never-ending battle which man is losing thousands of people the world over are killed or horribly killed each year and we are quietly sitting back and letting it happen. It has been rightly said that when a man is sitting behind a steering wheel, his car becomes the extension of his personality. There is no doubt that the motor-car often brings out a man’s very worst qualities. People who are normally quiet and pleasant may become unrecognizable when they are behind steering wheel. They swear, they are ill-mannered and aggressive, willful as two-year-olds and utterly selfish. All their hidden frustrations, disappointments and jealousies seem to be brought to the surface by the act of driving.

The surprising thing is that the society smiles so gently on the motorist and seems to forgive his behavior. Everything is done for his convenience. Cities are allowed to become almost uninhabitable because of heavy traffic; towns are made ugly by huge car parks; the countryside is desecrated by road networks; and the mass annual slaughter becomes nothing more than a statistic, to be conveniently forgotten. It is high time a world code were created to reduce this senseless waste of human life. With regard to driving, the laws of some countries are notoriously lax and even the strictest are not strict enough. A code which was universally accepted could only have a dramatically beneficial effect on the accident rate. Here are a few examples of some of the things that might be done. The driving test should be standardized and made for more difficult than it is; all the drivers should be made to take a test every three YEARS or so; the age at which young people are allowed to drive any vehicle should be raised to at least 21; all vehicles should be put through strict annual tests for safety. Even the smallest amount of alcohol in the blood can impair a person’s driving ability. Present drinking and driving laws (where they exist)should be made much stricter. Maximum and minimum speed limits should be imposed on all roads. Governments should lay down safety specifications for manufacturers, as has been done in the USA. All advertising stressing power and performance should be banned. These measures may sound inordinately harsh. But surely nothing should be considered as too severe if it results in reducing the annual toll of human life. After all, the world is for human beings not for motor-cars.

1.The main idea of this passage is ______.

A. traffic accidents are mainly caused by motorists

B. thousands of people the world over are killed each year

C. the laws of some countries about driving are too lax

D. only stricter traffic laws can prevent accidents

2.What does the author think of society toward motorists?

A. Society criticizes the motorists severely.

B. Huge car parks are built in the cities and towns.

C. Society overlooks their rude driving.

D. Victims of accidents are nothing.

3.Why does the author say: “his car becomes the extension of his personality”?

A. Driving can show his real self.

B. Driving can show the other part of his personality.

C. Driving can bring out his character.

D. His car embodies his temper.

4.Which of the followings is NOT mentioned as a way against traffic accidents?

A. Build more highways.

B. Stricter driving tests.

C. Test drivers every three years.

D. Raise age limit and lay down safety specifications.

5.The attitude of the author is ______.

A. ironical

B. critical

C. appealing

D. militant

【答案与解析】

1.D  全文主要讲述交通事故频频发生,而且一些国家的法律极为松弛,要想减少无谓的伤亡,必须制定法规,文章指出it is high time a world code were created,所以D项符合文意。

2.C  第二段第一句提到society smiles so gently on the motorist,并没有对他们粗鲁的行为表示批评并且seems to forgive his convenience,C项正确。

3.A  由第一段内容可知,司机在开车时将一切隐藏的情绪都发泄了出来,与平时判若两人,即驾车可以表现真实的自我,A项最为概括。

4.A  第二段中,The driving test should be made far more difficult than it is表明B项,all the drivers should be made to take a test every three是C项提到的措施,D项“提高年龄限制和制定安全法规”在文中可以找出相应内容。A项文中没有提到。

5.B  根据第二段第一句中的surprising和后面作者连用六个should…,可见作者认为现行的交通法则太松,对此持反对、批评的态度,因此B项正确。ironical讽刺的。appealing恳求的。militant好战的。

【题海拾贝】

1.expectation of life 平均余年(某一年龄的人尚可期望活的平均年数,可由统计资料显示)

2.marvelous 不可思议的;惊奇的;奇妙的

It’s marvelous how he’s manages to climb that far.他怎么爬得那么远,真不可思议。

3.immunize 使免除;使免疫

Vaccination immunizes one against smallpox.接种牛痘能使人免患天花。

4.desecrate  亵渎(圣物或圣地)

desecrate a grave, chapel, monument 亵渎坟墓、小教堂、纪念碑

5.slaughter 屠杀,杀戮

the slaughter on the roads 路上车祸造成的多人死亡

6.lax  不严格的;马虎的

The police were lax in enforcing the law. 警察执法不严。

7.impair 削弱,减少;损害,损伤

The output of produce was impaired by the cold weather. 农产品由于气候寒冷而减产。

The accident impaired his vision. 事故损伤了他的视力。

8.inordinate 极度的;非常的

He has an inordinate thirst. 他极感口渴。

Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage:

Climatic conditions are delicately adjusted to the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere. If there were a change in the atmosphere—for example, in the relative proportions of atmosphere gases—the climate would probably change also. A slight increase in water vapor, for instance, would increase the hem-retaining capacity of the atmosphere and would lead to a rise in global temperatures. In contrast, a large increase, in water vapor would increase the thickness and extent of the cloud layer, reducing the mount of solar energy reaching the Earth’ surface.

The level of carbon dioxide, CO2, in the atmosphere has important effect on climatic change. Most of the Earth’s incoming energy is short-wavelength radiation, which tends to pass through atmospheric CO2 easily. The Earth, however, reradiates much of the received energy as a long-wavelength radiation, which CO2 absorbs and then remits toward the Earth. This phenomenon, known as the greenhouse effect, can result in an increase in the surface temperature of a planet. An extreme example of the effect is shown by the Venus, a planet covered by heavy clouds composed mostly of CO2, whose surface temperatures have been measured at 430℃. If the CO2.content of the atmosphere is reduced, the temperature falls. According to one respectable theory, if the atmospheric CO2 concentration were halved, the Earth would become completely covered with ice. Another equally respectable theory, however, states that a halving of the CO2 concentration would lead only to a reduction in global temperatures of 3℃.

If, because of an increase in forest fires or volcanic activity, the CO2 content of the atmosphere increased, a warmer climate would be produced. Plant growth, which relies on both the warmth and the availability of CO2, would probably increase. As a consequence, plants would use more and more CO2. Eventually CO2 levels would diminish and the climate, in turn, would become cooler. With reduced temperatures many plants would die; COwould thereby be returned to the atmosphere and gradually the temperatures would rise again. Thus, if this process occurred, there might be a long-term oscillation in the amount of CO2 present in the atmosphere, with regular temperature increases and decreases of a set magnitude.

Some climatologists argue that the burning of fossil fuels has raised the level of COin the atmosphere and has caused a global temperature rise of at least 1℃. But a supposed global temperature rise of 1℃ may in reality be only several regional temperature increases, restricted to areas where there are many meteorological stations and caused simply by shifts in the pattern of atmospheric circulation. Other areas, for example the Southern Hemisphere oceanic zone, may be experiencing an equivalent temperature decreases that is unrecognized because of the shortage of meteorological recording stations.

6.The passage supplies information for answering which of the following questions?

A. Why are projections of the effects of changes in water vapor levels on the climate so inaccurate?

B. What are the steps in the process that takes place as CO2 absorbs long-wavelength radiation?

C. How might our understanding of the greenhouse effect be improved if the burning of fossil fuels were decreased?

D. What might cause a series of regular increases and decreases in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere?

7.The author is primarily concentrated on ______.

A. explaining the effects that the burning of fossil fuels might have on climate

B. illustrating the effects of CO2 on atmospheric radiation

C. discussing effects that changes in the CO2 level in the atmosphere might have on climate

D. challenging hypotheses about the effects of water vapor and CO2 on climate

8.The passage suggests that a large decrease in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere would result in ______.

A. at least a slight decrease in global temperatures

B. at the most a slight increases in short-wavelength radiation reaching the earth

C. a slight long-term increase in global temperatures

D. a slight short-term increase in global temperatures

9.The author refers to the Venus primarily in order to ______.

A. show the inherent weakness of the greenhouse effect theory

B. show that the greenhouse effect works on other planets but not on the earth

C. show the extent to which Earth’s atmosphere differs from that of the Venus

D. support the argument that the CO2 level in the atmosphere has a significant effect on climate

10.The passage suggests that if there were a slight global warming at the present time, it would be ______.

A. easy to measure the exact increase in temperature because of the abundances of temperature recording stations throughout the world

B. difficult to prove that the warming was caused by the burning of fossil fuels

C. easy to demonstrate the effects of the warming on the water vapor in the atmosphere

D. difficult to measure the increase of COin the atmosphere because of local variations in amount

【答案与解析】

6.D  第三段和第四段提出了大气中CO2含量增加或减少的原因:an increase in forest fires or volcanic activity,the burning of fossil fuels(一些气象学家的观点),plants would use more and more CO2,因此D项正确。

7.C  文章开篇就提到了地球上大气的成分微妙地影响着气候条件,第二段段首又提到空气中CO2的含量has important effect on climatic change,下文则举例说明CO2的含量是如何影响气候变化的,因此C项正确。

8.A  According to one respectable theory…global temperatures of 3℃,在此作者介绍了两种理论:第一,如果大气中的CO2减半,地球会完全被冰所覆盖;第二,如果大气中CO2的含量减半,全球气温会下降三摄氏度。因此,气温至少会有小幅的下降。

9.D  由The level of carbon dioxide, CO2, in the atmosphere has important effect on climatic change,可知大气中CO2的含量会对气候造成重大影响。然后作者以金星为例说明,金星被由CO2形成的厚云覆盖,表面温度达到430℃,但如果CO2含量下降,温度也随之降低,为论点提供了依据。

10.B  最后一段作者认为即使全球温度真的上升了1℃,事实上可能只是在设有很多气象站的区域,并且是由shifts in the pattern of atmospheric circulation造成的,而其他区域的温度正好下降了差不多的度数。很难判断全球 温度的增加是由于化石燃料的燃烧造成的。

【题海拾贝】

1.water vapor 水蒸气

2.short-wavelength radiation 短波辐射

3.oscillate 上下波动

The bank rate oscillated between 2.5 % and 6.5 %.银行利率在2.5 % and 6.5 %之间波动。

4.meteorological 气象学的,气象的

weather forecasts from the Central Meteorological Office中央气象局发布的天气预报

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage:

Science is a dominant theme in our culture. Since it touches almost every facet of our life, educated people need at least some acquaintance with its structure and operation. They should also have an understanding of the subculture in which scientists live and the kinds of people they are. An understanding of general characteristics of science as well as specific scientific concepts is easier to attain if one knows something about the things that excite and frustrate the scientist.

This book is written for the intelligent student of lay person whose acquaintance with science is superficial; for the person who has been presented with science as a musty storehouse of dried facts; for the person who has been presented with science as the production of gadgets; and for the person who views the scientists as some sort of magician. The book can be used to supplement a course in any science, to accompany any course that attempts to give an understanding of the modern world, or independently of any course—simply to provide a better understanding of science. We hope this book will lead readers to a broader perspective on scientific attitudes and a more realistic view of what science is, who scientists are, and what they do. It will give them an awareness and understanding of the relationship between science and our culture and an appreciation of the roles science may play in our culture. In addition, readers may learn to appreciate the relationship between scientific views and some of the values and philosophies that are pervasive in our culture.

We have tried to present in this book an accurate and up-to-date picture of the scientific community and the people who populated it. That population has in recent years come to comprise more and more women. This increasing role of women in the scientific subculture is not an unique incident but, rather, part of the trend evident in all segments of society as more women enter traditionally male-dominated fields and make significant contributions. In discussing these changes and contribution, however, we are faced with a language that is implicitly sexist, one that uses male nouns or pronouns in referring to unspecified individuals. To offset this built-in bias, we have adopted the policy of using plural nouns and pronouns whenever possible and, when absolutely necessary, alternating he and she. This policy is far from being ideal, but it is at least an acknowledgment of the inadequacy of our language in treating half of the human equally.

We have also tried to make the book entertaining as well as informative. Our approach is usually informal. We feel, as do many other scientists, that we shouldn’t take ourselves too seriously. As the reader may observe, we see science as a delightful pastime than as a grim and dreary way to earn a living.

11.According to the passage, “scientific subculture” means ______.

A. cultural groups that are formed by scientists

B. people whose knowledge of science is very limited

C. the scientific community

D. people who make good contribution to science

12.We need to know something about the structure and operation of science because ______.

A. it is not easy to understand the things that excite and frustrate science

B. science affects almost every aspect of our life

C. scientists live in a specific substructure

D. it is easier to understand general characteristics of science

13.The book mentioned in this passage is written for readers who ______.

A. long for deeper understanding of science

B. are good at producing various gadgets

C. work in a storehouse of dried facts

D. are interested in popular science

14.According to this passage, ______.

A. English is a sexist language

B. only in the scientific world is the role of women increasing rapidly

C. women are making significant contributions to eliminating the inadequacy of our language

D. male nouns or pronouns should not be used to refer to scientists

15.This passage most probably is ______.

A. a book review

B. the preface of a book

C. the post script of a book

D. the concluding part of a book

【答案与解析】

11.C  第一段表明受教育的人should have an understanding of the subculture,应该熟悉科学家所处的亚文化群体(subculture)以及他们是什么样的人。可得知亚文化群体即科学界。

12.B  第一段讲到科学涉及到我们生活的方方面面,受教育的人need at least some acquaintance with its structure and operation,据此可直接得出答案。

13.A  第二段This book is written for…as some sort of magician一句,指出此书为四种人而写,这四种人对科学的认识或浮浅或不正确,他们对科学的认识有待加深,所以A项最符合。其余三项均不正确。

14.D  第三段内容指出在谈论这些改变和妇女对科学界的贡献时,我们使用的是歧视性语言―one that uses male nouns or pronouns in referring to unspecified individuals,为了消除这种固有的偏见,我们在可能和必要时用plural nouns and pronouns to alternate he and she。

15.B  第二段首的This book is written for…指出此书为四种人而写,指明了该书的读者群;三,四段首又分别列举了该书要达到的目的:present in this book…who populated it以及make the book entertaining as well as informative,可以推断这是一本书的前言。

【题海拾贝】

1.lay person=layman (尤指不谙法律,医学等专业的)门外汉,外行

Doctors often confuse laypersons with their jargon.

医师常用专业术语把门外汉弄个稀里糊涂。

2.musty 霉的,发霉的;有霉味的,霉烂而潮湿的

a kitchen smell damp and musty散发出潮气和霉味的厨房

3.sexist 主张(尤指对女性的)性别歧视者;性别主义者的,性别歧视者的

a sexist society 性别歧视的社会

4.offset 补偿;抵消

The gains offset the losses.得失相当。

5.built-in 内在的,固有的,生来的

a built-in fear/danger 潜在的恐惧/危险

a built-in sense of humor 天生的幽默感

6.pastime 消遣,娱乐

Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage:

Next to Sir Andrew in the club-room sits Captain Sentry, a gentleman of great courage, good understanding, but invincible modesty. He is one of those that deserve very well, but are very awkward at putting their talents within the observation of such as should take notice of them. He was some years a captain, and behaved himself with great gallantry in several engagements and at several sieges; but having a small estate of his own, and being next heir to Sir Roger, he has quitted a way of life in which no man can rise suitably to his merit, who is not something of a courtier as well as a soldier. I have heard him often lament that in a profession where merit is placed in so conspicuous a view, impudence should get the better of modesty. When he had talked to this purpose; I never heard him make a sour expression, but frankly confess that he left the world because he was not fit for it. A strict honesty, and an even regular behavior, are in themselves obstacles to him that must press through crowds, who endeavour at the same end with himself, the favor of a commander. He will, however, in his way of talk excuse generals for not disposing according to men’s desert, or inquiring into it; for, says he, that the great man who has a mind to help me, has as many, to break through to come at me, as I have to come at him: therefore he will conclude that the man who would make a figure, especially in a military way, must get over all false modesty, and assist his patron against the importunity of other pretenders, by a proper assurance in his own vindication. He says it is a civil cowardice to be backward in asserting what you ought to expect, as it is a military fear to be slow in attacking when it is your duty. With this candour does the gentleman speak of himself and others. The same frankness runs through all his conversation. The military part of his life has furnished him with many adventures, in the relation of which he is very agreeable to the company; for he is never overbearing, though accustomed to command men in the utmost degree below him; nor ever too obsequious, from a habit of obeying men highly above him.

16.Captain Sentry, in this passage, demonstrates that he is noteworthy because of his ______.

A. domineering quality

B. modesty

C. honesty

D. frankness

17.Advancement in the army is often given to the person who ______.

A. calls attention to himself

B. performs valiantly on the battlefield

C. is obsequious

D. is a civil coward

18.Captain Sentry retired to the country because he was ______.

A. bitter about his rank

B. Sir Roger’s heir

C. too modest to be noticed by his superiors

D. accustomed to obeying people above him

19.“Candour” means ______.

A. frankness

B. obsequious

C. optimism

D. sarcasm

20.In describing Captain Sentry’s failure to advance the author is ______.

A. factual

B. obsequious

C. sarcastic

D. gallant

【答案与解析】

16.D  With this candour does the gentleman speak of himself and other(这位先生以这种坦率谈自己和别人)和The some frankness runs though all his conversation(同样的坦率贯穿于他的谈话)就可以推断出Captain Sentry是一个很坦率的人。

17.C  Captain Sentry不善于让应该注意到他才能的人注意到,他认为在部队里impudence should get the better of modesty,要善于逢迎而非只懂得谦虚,因此选C。

18.C  由Captain Sentry得出的结论,the man who would make a figure, especially in a military way, must get over all false modesty,要想在部队里成为一个杰出人物,就得克服谦虚的弱点,而He was not fit for the world, 所以他选择退役。

19.A  由下一句The same frankness runs through all his conversation中的the same frankness可知,frankness指代的就是candour,也就是说candour与frankness同义。

20.C  文章说明Captain Sentry不能被提拔的原因是因为他过于谦虚,而且不会奉承巴结别人,作者反话正说,说明部队的黑暗,因此充满讽刺口吻。

【题海拾贝】

1.invincible 不能克服的;不可战胜的;不能征服的

There was an invincible reasonableness in his arguments.

他的论据中有不能驳倒的合理成分。

2.gallantry 勇气;勇敢;英勇

3.courtier 奉承者;谄媚者

4.impudence 厚颜无耻;放肆;无礼

He had the impudence to insist on having his name included in the list.

他厚颜坚持要别人把自己的名字列入名单。

5.importunity强求,胡搅蛮缠

She was irritated by his constant importunity.她被他没完没了的强求所激怒。

6.overbearing专横的;跋扈的;横行霸道的

She is overbearing in her relation with her staff.

她专横地对待手下的工作人员。

7.obsequious巴结的;卑躬屈膝的;奉承拍马的

His obsequious submission to his boss’s ideas disgusted his fellow workers.

他对老板意见的阿谀奉承使他的同事感到恶心。

Part II Vocabulary (15%)

Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part, for each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the ONE that best complete the sentence. Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets.

21.The two newspapers gave different ______ of what happened.

A. versions

B. editions

C. productions

D. texts

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:两家报纸对所发生的事情的描述不尽相同。version说法。editions版本。production生产,产品,成果。texts课文,文本。

22.Some people think it’s______ to smoke with a cigarette holder.

A. flexible

B. sophisticated

C. versatile

D. productive

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:一些人觉得用烟斗抽烟显得老练。sophisticated老练的。flexible易弯曲的,灵活的。versatile多才多艺的,通用的。productive多产的,生产的。

23.The degree of economic growth is an ______ of the level of living.

A. index

B. advantage

C. access

D. aspect

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:经济增长程度是生活水平的标志。index标志,表征,量度。advantage优点,好处。access进入,通道。aspect方面,外表。

24.I want to talk about all these points in ______ order of importance.

A. declining

B. descending

C. plunging

D. falling

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:我想按照重要性递减的顺序谈论所有这些要点。descending递降的。declining倾斜的,衰退中的。plunging突进的,急降的。falling下降的,落下的。四个词均含“下降”的意思,但descend强调“逐降”或“递降”。

25.Efforts to reach the injured men have been ______ because of a sudden deterioration in weather conditions.

A. enforced

B. intensified

C. continued

D. strengthened

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:由于天气情况陡然恶化,大家要尽力赶到伤员那儿。intensify加强,加剧。enforce执行,实施。continue继续。strengthen加强,巩固。intensify后常跟effort或responsibility,strengthen后面一般跟defense/unity/discipline。

26.I don’t understand why people ______ such a beautiful garden with cans and bottles.

A. located

B. provided

C. protected

D. littered

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:我不明白人们为什么在如此美丽的花园里乱扔瓶瓶罐罐。litter乱丢垃圾。locate确定…的地点。provide提供。protect保护。

27.I’ve never ______ the theory that people are more important than animals.

A. subscribed to

B. hung on

C. engaged in

D. indulged in

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:我决不赞成人比动物重要的理论。subscribe to赞成,同意。hang on坚持下去,(打电话)不挂断。engage in使从事于,参加。indulge in沉溺于。

28.City officials are considering building a path to give the public ______ to the site.

A. recreation

B. excess

C. excursion

D. access

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:市政官员们正在考虑修一条路,使公众可以参观那个遗址。access to(使用某物或接近某人的)机会或权利。recreation娱乐,修养。excess超越,过量。excursion短途旅行。

29.President Bush’s visit was planned to ______ 30th anniversary of President Nixon’s visit to China.

A. depend on

B. adhere to

C. coincide with

D. cling to

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:布什总统访华恰好被安排在尼克松总统访华30周年纪念日。coincide with与…巧合。depend on依赖。adhere to坚持,追随。cling to坚持,依靠。

30.The people for the experiment were chosen completely ______.

A. at length

B. in essence

C. at random

D. in bulk

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:参加这个试验的人完全是随机挑选的。at random任意,随机地。at length最后,详细地。in essence本质上。in bulk散装,大量。

31.The Olympic Games were watched by ______ billions of people around the world.

A. virtually

B. literally

C. deliberately

D. appropriately

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:全世界确有几十亿人观看了那次奥运会。literally确实的,真正的。virtually实际上。deliberately 故意地。appropriately恰当地。

32.You were ______ by your absence yesterday.

A. merciful

B. conscientious

C. conspicuous

D .impartial

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】conspicuous明显的,引人注目的。merciful仁慈的,慈悲的。conscientious认真的,尽责的。impartial公正的,无偏见的。

33.A physical examination is a ______ to joining the army.

A. parliamentary

B. preliminary

C. elementary

D. complementary

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:体检是参军的预备阶段。preliminary开端,预备步骤。parliamentary议会的。elementary基本的。complementary补充的,互补的。

34.They are both very determined people, so there’s rather a ______ of personalities.

A. debate

B. disagreement

C. contest

D. clash

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:他们俩的意志都很坚定,以他们的个性会发生很大的冲突。clash冲突。debate辩论。disagreement不一致,争论。contest竞赛。

35.What is the ______ in going by boat when the plane costs no more and is quicker?

A. impression

B. meaning

C. comprehension

D. sense

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:既然飞机上的开销不比船上大,而且速度更快,那为什么还要乘船呢?sense道理,合理性,用处。impression印象。meaning意义,含义,意图。comprehension理解。

36.The report managed to get an ______ interview with the Prime Minister.

A. extinct

B. excluding

C. excessive

D. exclusive

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:这名记者设法对首相进行了独家采访。exclusive唯一的,排他的。extinct(火、希望等)熄灭了的。excluding排除在外的。excessive过分的,过多的。

37.The creation of UN was, perhaps, the most ______ achievement of the 20th century.

A. obscure

B. notable

C. acute

D. objective

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:联合国的创立也许是20世纪最显著的成就。notable显著的,值得注意的,著名的。obscure昏暗的,朦胧的。acute敏锐的,尖锐的。objective客观的。

38.Our interests seem to ______ at this point.

A. constrain

B. condense

C. conduct

D. converge

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:在这一点上,我们的利益似乎是一致的。converge会聚,集中。constrain抑制,强迫。condense压缩,浓缩。conduct指导,进行。

39.Two trucks were reported to have ______ head-on yesterday.

A. bumped

B. crashed

C. collided

D. struck

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:据报道,昨天两辆卡车迎头相撞。collide(车、船)相撞,为不及物动词。bump碰撞,撞见,既可作及物动词也可作不及物动词。crash(飞机)坠毁,撞坏。strike使某人(某物)遭受撞击,及物动词。

40.There was nothing we could do ______ wait.

A. or rather

B. but rather

C. rather than

D. other than

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:除了等待我们别无他法。other than除了。or rather更准确地说。but rather相反地。rather than而不是。

41.The problem has been ______ my mind all day.

A. preying on

B. getting at

C. taking on

D. seeing to

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:这个问题我苦苦思索一整天了。prey on折磨,损害。get at到达,意指,攻击。take on承担(责任),呈现(面貌)。see to负责,注意。

42.The man went to prison, but the two boys ______ with a warning.

A. took off

B. got off

C. kept off

D. set off

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:那个男子坐了牢,但那两个男孩只受到警告而没有被处罚。get off逃脱惩罚。take off脱下(衣服),飞机(起飞)。keep off让开,不接近。set off出发,动身。

43.The appeal for funds did not ______ much of respond

A. drag

B. elicit

C. tempt

D. attract

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:他们呼吁提供资金,但没有引起多大反应。elicit从某人处诱出,探出(事实,反应等)。drag拖,拉。tempt引诱。attract引起注意。

44.She ______ the list of names to see if hers was on it.

A. glanced

B. gazed

C. peered

D. scanned

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:她审视了一下名单,看看上面是否有她的名字。scan细看,审视。glance一瞥,扫视(后接at)。gaze凝视,注视(后接at/on/upon)。peer偷看(后接at)。

45.A new baby and a new job can be equally ______.

A. tremendous

B. intensive

C. demanding

D. overwhelming

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:照顾新生婴儿和从事一项新工作一样费心。demanding要求高的,需要技能的,很费心的。tremendous巨大的。overwhelming巨大的,势不可挡的。intensive集中的,加强的。

46.Her successful jump brought a ______ cheer from the crowd.

A. spontaneous

B. homogenous

C. simultaneous

D. instantaneous

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:她成功地跃过,人群里顿时爆发出一阵欢呼声。spontaneous自发的,主动的,自然的。homogeneous同类的,相似的,均一的。simultaneous同时的,同时发生的。instantaneous瞬时的。

47.It can be hard to live up to one’s ______.

A. enjoyment

B. evaluation

C. appreciation

D. reputation

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:不负盛名是很难做到的。reputation名声,名誉。enjoyment享受,乐趣。evaluation评价,估价。appreciation欣赏,感激。

48.We made plans for a visit, but ______ difficulties with car prevented it.

A. subordinate

B. succeed

C. successive

D. subsequent

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:我们计划出访,但由于后来车子出了一些故障,我们未能出访。subsequent随后的,后来的。subordinate次要的,从属的。succeed成功,接替。successive相继的,接连的。

49.She felt offended at my remarks, but it wasn’t my ______ to hurt her.

A. intent

B. scheme

C. intention

D. meaning

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:她被我的话惹恼了,但我并非有意伤害她。intention意图,打算。intent意图,目的。scheme计划,阴谋。meaning词义,意义。

50.New data has ______ that the damage to the ozone layer is not confined to the southern hemisphere.

A. ratified

B. confirmed

C. assured

D. approved

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:新的数据证实对臭氧层的破坏并不限于南半球。confirm证实。ratify批准,许可。assure保证。approve同意,赞成。

Part III Cloze(l0%)

Directions: For each numbered bracket in the following passage, fill in a suitable word in the blank on the ANSWER SHEET.

Old people are always saying that the young people are not (51)_____ they were. The same comment is (52)_____ from generation to generation and it is always (53)_____ .It has never been truer than it is today. The young are better educated. They have a lot more money to spend and enjoy (54)_____ freedom. They grow up more quickly and are not so (55)_____ on their parents. Events which the older generation remember vividly are (56)_____ more than past history. This is as it should be. Every new generation is (57)_____ from the one that preceded it. Today the difference is very marked indeed.

The old always assume that they know best for the simple (58)_____ that they have been (59)_____ a bit longer. They don’t like to feel that their values are being questioned or threatened. And this is precisely what the (60)_____ are doing. They are questioning the (61)_____ of their elders and disturbing their complacency. They take leave to (62)_____ that the older generation has created the best of all possible worlds. What they reject more than (63)_____ is conformity. Office hours, for instance, are nothing more than enforced slavery. Wouldn’t people work best if they were given complete freedom and (64)_____? And what (65)_____ the clothing? Who said that all the men in the world should (66)_____ drab grey suits? If we turn our (67)_____ to more serious matters, who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional politics or by violent means? Why have the older generation so often used (68)_____ to solve their problems? Why are they are so unhappy and guilt-ridden in their personal lives, so obsessed with mean ambitions and the desire to amass more and more (69)_____ possessions’? Can anything be right with the rat-race? Haven’t the old lost (70)_____ with all that is important in life?

【答案与解析】

51.what  由what引出的表语从句。

52.made  make comment固定搭配。

53.true  根据下句It has never been truer than it is today得出。

54.more  平行结构。

55.dependent  dependent on固定搭配。

56.nothing  no more than至多,不超过,只是。

57.different

58.reason

59.around  have been around见过世面;经验丰富;老于世故。

60.young

61.assumptions

62.doubt  与后面的reject相对应。

63.anything

64.responsibility

65.about  what about… ……怎么样?

66.wear

67.minds

68.violence  根据上句who said that…by violent means  得出。

69.material  material possessions  物质财富。

70.touch/contact  lose touch/contact with ……与……失去联系。

【题海拾贝】

1.marked 明显的;显著的

The patient showed a marked improvement. 病人病情显著好转。

2.have been around 见过世面;经验丰富;老于世故

This guy’s been around. 这个家伙见过世面。

3.complacency 自满(情绪),沾沾自喜;满足,满意

Short-term sufficiency lulled them into complacency about the long-term threat.

暂时的充足使他们盲目自满,看不到远期的威胁。

The old lady’s complacency contrasted with the dissatisfied air of her daughter.

老妇人的满足和他女儿的不满神态形成对照。

4.take leave to do sth 冒昧做某事,擅自做某事

5.amass 积聚财富,积累

The country has amassed foreign debts.该国外债成堆。

Part IV English-Chinese Translation(15%)

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.

The world’s long romance with speed may finally be ending. Even if Concorde (协和式飞机)flies again, its antique nature was revealed as soon as the Paris accident made people scratch their heads and ask quite why these odd aircraft were still flying. Much of the technology that surrounded us has, when we look at it afresh, a Jules Verne quality -solving problems that once seemed important in ways that ingenious but not necessarily efficient or safe.

The reorientation of science reward the biological and computer frontiers is now truism, but the 19th -century fascination with motive power has retained a powerful hold on our imaginations and our economies. 71. Advances in motive power were for a long while the main way in which progress and national competition in technology were measured. First at sea, then on the railways, then on the roads, in the air and finally in space, more and more rapid movement was seen as an carefree good and also, in some vague way, as a key to a fuller understanding of the world.

So intoxicating was this ultimate way in which the growing speed and reach of man-made vehicles could be used that when an unknown rocket enthusiast called Hermann Oberth published his By Rocket To Interplanetary Space in the 1920s, it represented such an escape from the difficulties of the present to the anxious citizens of Weimar Germany (德国魏玛共和国)that it became a bestseller overnight.

72.For individual sportsmen, pilots and drivers, speed had the status of a privileged substance to which, in those early days, only a minority had full access. Mechanized speed made men, and a few women, into heroes, and it remains a commodity to which males, in particular, are attracted. The front of the Boys Own annual of half a century ago would typically feature a speeding train in the middle ground, a fast aeroplane above, and a racing car in the foreground.

Disentangling the genuine advantages of speed from its cult aspects has always been a problem, and this was certainly the case in the era in which Concorde was conceived. Land, air and sea speed records had mattered since the 20s in a way inconceivable today. This manic race was run on three tracks –of celebrity sport, of competition between civil industries, and of military development. All three were littered with casualties, whether spectators at Le Mans, Donald Campbell on Coniston Water, or numerous test pilots and astronauts through the years.

Britain was slowing down on all three courses when Concorde came along. Indeed the Concorde project survived in part because, as Harold Wilson explained in his memoirs, the agreement with the French was embodied in an international treaty, and they refused even to consider abandoning or postponing the work. “We had little choice but to go on,” the then prime minister concluded.

His lack of enthusiasm suggests that, long before Concorde flew, some those responsible for it knew that it was not going to be a practical aircraft, and also that the technical spin-off would be less than advertised. The reason was that speed was such as dominant consideration that everything else had to take second place. The result was an aircraft that was both ahead of its tie and behind the times, since the era of small-scale luxury air travel was over.

A preoccupation with speed has always gone hand in hand with a preoccupation with safety, the two standards between them providing a way in which advanced states calibrate the state of civilization. Increasing speeds have world lives inconstant fear of regression, of losing the scientific and organizational edge that enables it to be both fast and safe. That is one reason why air and sea accidents can attain such mythic status. The disparate treatment of first and third world accidents in the Western press is probably due ore to the feeling that accidents are indicators of technical health than to any devaluation of African or Asian lives.

Speed still has its kingdom, but it is shrinking. Its limits have long ago been reached on the roads, and its value in the air, even for manned military aircraft, is diminished—agility and protection are as or more important. 73.It is still marginally attractive to make trains go faster. The pursuit of physical speed has been replaced by the pursuit of near instantaneity on the Net, an aim which we may in time come to regard just as skeptically.

It is hard to imagine the mood in which David Lean’s The Sound Barrier was made in 1952. breaking that barrier seemed to hold the key to a mystery. But there was no mystery. Man can go faster, but that does not mean it is worth doing so.

【参考译文】

71.在很长一段时间内,人们一直把动力的发展作为衡量进步和国家技术竞争力的主要尺度。起初在海上,后来在铁路上,接着在公路上,然后在天空,最后在太空,人们将越来越快的运动视为一件无需担忧的好事,并且从某种意义上来说,越来越快的运动被视作是更充分了解世界的一把钥匙。

【解析】本段句式比较简单,但要注意一些专业词语的翻译,如motive power,要译为“动力”。此外,还要注意词性的灵活转换,如more and more rapid movement was seen as an carefree good一句中的good,通常情况下是形容词,但是翻译时要转换为名词,译为“好事”。

【题海拾贝】

1.advance 进步;发展

2.the continue advance of civilization 文明的不断进步

3.carefree 无忧无虑的;不负责任的,不计后果的

4.be carefree with one’s money 大手大脚地花钱

5.vague 不具体的;不确切的;不精确的

She can only give a vague description of her attacker.

她只能粗略地描述了一下那个袭击她的人。

【参考译文】

72.对运动员、飞行员和汽车驾驶员个体而言,在较早时期,速度处于一种特权财富地位,只有少数人能够完全拥有这种有特权的财富。在那时,机械化速度使得男人和少数女性成为英雄,至今机械化速度仍然是一种尤其吸引男性的商品,。

【解析】此句比较简单,只要处理好两个限制性定语从句即可。如“speed had the status of a privileged substance to which, in those early days, only a minority had full access”一句中which指的是privileged substance,可理解为only a minority had full access to the privileged substance, 翻译过来也就是:只有少数人才能完全拥有这种有特权的财富。

【题海拾贝】

1.privileged 享有或授予特权的;特许的

2.substance 物质力量;财力,资产

3.mechanized 机械化的

4.have access to (使用某物或接近某人的)机会或权利

【参考译文】

73.让火车跑得更快仍然具有些许吸引力。人们对网上接近瞬时的追求已经取代了对物质速度的追求。也许我们最终会用看待物质速度那样怀疑的目光来看待网上接近瞬时的这一目标。

【解析】这一段的翻译难点在第二句后半部分。要发掘出一个由as引出的比较句型,补充完整就是an aim which we may in time come to regard just as skeptically as we regard the aim of pursuing physical speed,因此在翻译过程中要十分注意类似情形。

【题海拾贝】

1.marginally微小地;少量地

2.instantaneity瞬时

Part V Chinese-English Translation(15%)

Directions: Translate the following short paragraph into English and write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.

“我的英语有多好?”对任何学习英语的人来说是最重要的一个问题。知道这个问题的答案不仅有助于你的信心,而且如果你想取得更多的进步,知道这个答案是有用的,因为一旦知道已经达到一个水平,你就会开始向下一个水平进军。考试在学习过程中发挥另外一个重要作用——考试证明学习者在一种语言中是否熟练。通过语言考试远不只是激励了自己在语言方面的自尊。如果你想到英语国家去念大学,或者你想找一份需要英语技能的工作的话,通过语言考试那就至关重要了

【参考译文】

“How well is my English” is the most important question for any English learner. Knowing the answer to this question not only helps build your confidence, it is also useful if you would like to make grater progress, since once you know you have achieved a certain level, you will start tackling the next. Exams play another significant part in the learning process—it can prove whether a learner is proficient in a language. Passing an exam doesn’t just promote your linguistic self-esteem; it is crucial if you want to study in a college of an English-speaking country, or if you want to find a job which demands English language skills.

【解析】

此题比较容易,但要注意做好中英语言的转换。文中的“向下一个水平进军”可能会使考生不知所措,只要想到tackle有“着手应付,着手解决”的意思,就可翻译出来了。此外,本段分句很多,在翻译过程中要注意运用适当的连词做到句子的起承转合。如not only,because,once等等,使句子显得紧凑自然。

【题海拾贝】

1.对…熟练,精通be proficient in

2.向…进军,着手解决tackle

3.自尊self-esteem

Part VI Writing (15%)

Directions: In this part, you are expected to write a composition entitled Pressures of Modern Man in no less than 200 words. Your composition should be based on the following outlines.

1.现代人会遇到各种各样的压力

2.压力的来源

3.如何减轻自己的压力

【参考范文】

Pressures of Modern Man

As the life pace is becoming faster and faster, people in modern society are faced with various pressures.

Workers fear that they might be fired by their boss if they didn’t perform well at work, and they are also challenged to strike a balance between work and family. They spend much less time in being with their children and husband or wife than on work, which has caused serious social problems. Some workers are also under the pressure of getting a promotion and a rise in salary. Peasants are worried that their crops don’t grow well due to flood or draught, so that they can’t sell a high price. Or they fear that the price of chemical fertilizer and other materials will go up sharply, which will affect their incomes. Some may think students are carefree, because they are dependent on their parents and don’t need to struggle to earn their living. But that isn’t the case. The pressures are through all their school life. Primary school students are expected to enter key junior high school while the junior high school students to enter key senior high school. High school students also live under pressures. Their parents hope that they can go to a good university so that they can find a satisfactory job in the future. Besides, nowadays even on holidays or weekends, students are deprived of freedom, being forced by their parents to attend kinds of training courses to learn English, drawing, swimming, piano, dancing and so on. The parents hope their children could be versatile and brilliant.

It seems that pressure is ubiquitous in modern society. But we shouldn’t be afraid of it whenever we meet with it, for it is useless. We should try to find ways to lose pressure. Here are some tips I generalized to defeat pressure in life—first, don’t think about it all the time; second, take more exercises in spare time; third, find a good friend or intimate person to tell them your problems. Hope these can be beneficial to you. As long as we regard pressure in a right way, it will be the motive rather than disincentive for our progress.

【解析】

这篇文章虽然简短,但是层次鲜明,脉络清晰。第一段开始总说As the life pace is becoming faster and faster,伴随着现代生活的快节奏,人们面临着各种各样的压力这一现象,第二段以工人,农民,学生为例,说明他们各自所面临的压力及原因, 对于学生族,作者又重点说了由于家长的压力,学生们不得不牺牲课余时间去参加各种培训班。第三段作者又谈到我们对压力应持的态度以及自己减轻压力的具体方法与措施,希望对承受着各种压力的人能有所帮助。

【文海拾贝】

(1)earn one’s living谋生

(2)carefree无忧无虑的

After finishing our exams we all felt happy and carefree.

考完试后,我们都感到轻松愉快。

(3)be deprived of剥夺,夺去,使失去

The law will deprive us of our most basic rights.这条法律将剥夺我们最基本的权利。

(4)versatile多才多艺的,有多种技能的;善于应变的

a very versatile performer多才多艺的表演家

a very versatile campaign strategy善于应变的竞选战略

(5)ubiquitous普遍存在的,无处不有的

Is there no escape from the ubiquitous cigarette smoke in restaurants?

餐厅里吸烟的烟雾就没有地方可以躲得过去吗?

(6)tip有用的意见;劝告

The manual is full of useful tips.这本手册里有很多实用的小建议。

(7)disincentive起抑制作用的事物,制止因素

housing disincentives for large families对多子女家庭的住房限制

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