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中国科技大学考博英语历年真题及详解

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中国科技大学考博英语历年真题及详解

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[电子书]中国科技大学考博英语历年真题及详解


目录

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内容简介
目录

2006年中国科技大学春季考博英语真题及详解[听力音频]

2005年中国科技大学秋季考博英语真题及详解[听力音频]
2005年中国科技大学春季考博英语真题及详解[听力音频]
2004年中国科技大学秋季考博英语真题及详解[听力音频]
2004年中国科技大学春季考博英语真题及详解[听力音频]
2003年中国科技大学秋季考博英语真题及详解[听力音频]
2003年中国科技大学春季考博英语真题及详解
2001年中国科技大学考博英语真题及详解
2000年中国科技大学考博英语真题及详解

隐藏内容简介

考博真题是每个考生复习备考必不可少的资料,而拥有一份权威、正确的参考答案尤为重要,通过研究历年真题能洞悉考试出题难度和题型,了解常考章节与重要考点,能有效指明复习方向。

《中国科技大学考博英语历年真题及详解》由圣才考研网组织人员严格按照中国科技大学考博英语考试大纲精心编写而成。本书收录2000~2001和2003~2006年的考试真题,并提供全部试题的参考答案及详解。本书中的解题思路清晰、答案翔实,帮助广大考生在熟练掌握知识点的同时,能够熟练运用各种题型的答题技巧,以提高应试技巧,把握答题节奏,增强自信心,提高考试分数。

历年真题是很有价值的复习备考资料,通过研习考博真题,可以了解本考试科目的出题风格、难度及命题点。

隐藏试读(部分内容)

2006年中国科技大学春季考博英语真题及详解[听力音频]

PAPER  ONE

SECTION I  LISTENING COMPREHENSION ( 20 points )

Part A

Directions: In this part, you will hear 10 short conversations between two people. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A, B, C and D, and decide which is the best answer. Then blacken the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.

1.A. There are different kinds of folders.

B. This decision requires careful thought.

C. It doesn’t matter which color she uses.

D. The color should suggest the content.

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】对话中女士犹豫选哪种颜色,男人说“颜色并不重要,重要的是内容”,选项C符合。

【录音原文】

W: I don’t know which color folder to use, white or brown?

M: What difference does it make? It’s the content that’s important.

Q: What does the man mean?

2.A. 20.

B. 40.

C. 80.

D.160.

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】对话中女士说“公司雇佣了160名女性员工,占全体职员的80%”,计算可知,男员工有40人。

【录音原文】

M: Could you tell me how many of your employees are women?

W: Yes, certainly. We have a very high percentage of female staff. We employ about 160 women, which is eighty percent of all our staff.

Q: How many of the employees in this organization are men?

3.A. She thinks that they are a bargain.

B. She thinks that they are of inferior quality.

C. She thinks that they are overpriced.

D. She thinks that they can be purchased at a cheaper price elsewhere.

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】对话中女士说“这些转盘价格很低,很划算。”,男人说“质量远比价格重要”,可知,女士认为这些转盘很便宜,选项A正确。

【录音原文】

W: Look at the low prices on these turntables. Don’t you think they’re a fantastic buy?

M: Yes, but quality is more important than price. Let’s look elsewhere before making a decision.

Q: How does the woman feel about the turntables?

4.A. At a bus station.

B. In a restaurant.

C. In a college information office.

D. At the dean’s home.

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】对话中男人想去旅行社获取一些旅行信息,女士说“Right here, in this office the dean has地图,行程安排等,这写是为外国学生准备的”,可判断该对话发生在大学信息咨询处。

【录音原文】

M: Do you think the travel agency will be open Saturday afternoon? I want to get some information about a bus trip across the United States.

W: You don’t have to wait until Saturday. Right here, in this office, the dean has maps, bus schedules and even a list of inexpensive hotels. They’re for foreign students, you know.

Q: Where did this conversation most probably take place?

5.A. He’s happy that his parents are coming.

B. He’s thinking about a number of things.

C. He’s not feeling very well.

D. He’s looking for a new apartment.

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】对话中男人说“他的父母要来见他,而他又新近搬家”,因此he’s just got a lot oil in his mind,即“想很多事情,脑子一片混乱。”

【录音原文】

W: Do you know what’s wrong with Mark? He’s been acting very strangely lately

M: Come on,with his parents coming to visit next week-right after he’s moved into a new apartment-he’s just got a lot oil in his mind.

Q: What does the woman say about Mark?

6.A. She wants the man to attend the tournament with her.

B. The tournament begins next week.

C. The man should check with his doctor again.

D. She hopes the man will be able to play in the tournament.

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】对话中男人说自己可能几周后就能踢足球了,女士说“如果你能在锦标赛前康复,那就好极了。”,可判断女士希望男人能够参加锦标赛。

【录音原文】

M: Good news.I’m not going to need surgery after all. The doctor says I can start working out  again soon. And maybe play soccer again in a few weeks.

W: That’s terrific. It would be great if you could get back in shape in time for the state tournament.

Q: What does the woman mean?

7.A. Where the woman is going to dinner.

B. Where the new restaurant is located.

C. Where the woman got the coupon.

D. Where the woman’s cousin lives.

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】对话中女士说“我有那家新餐馆的优惠券”,男人问Where did you get it,并表示自己也想去新餐馆试试,选项C正确。coupon优惠券。

【录音原文】

W: I’ve got a coupon for half of dinner at that new restaurant down the street.I think I will use it when my cousin comes for a visit this weekend.

M: Where did you get it? I wouldn’t mind trying that place out too.

Q: What does the man want to know?

8.A. It will last for two weeks.

B. It has come to a halt.

C. It will end before long.

D. It will probably continue.

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】对话中女士说“管理方已经给工人们增加了工资,但工会却holding out for its original demands坚持他们的最初要求”,可判断女士认为罢工可能还会持续。hold out for坚持要求。

【录音原文】

M: The strike at the port has held up our export orders for two weeks.Do you think it will end soon?

W: As far as I know, the management side has made an improved pay offer but the union is holding out for its original demands.

Q: What does the woman think of the strike?

9.A. It doesn’t provide much shade.

 B. It’s taller than the apartment building.

C. It’s not an oak tree.

D. It has an unusual name.

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】对话中女士说“这棵树像橡树那么高,但是叶子形状不一样”,表明它不是橡树。

【录音原文】

W: I wish I knew what kind of tree that was,growing in front of the apartment building.

M: I know. It’s tall like an oak, but the leaves are in different shape.

Q: What can be inferred about the tree?

10.A. She approves of the action.

  B. She feels sorry for those students.

  C. She considers the punishment excessive.

 D. She has no opinion about the action.

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】女士的意思是“他们应该受到那样的对待,我不会同情任何以欺骗方式通过考试的人。”,表明她赞同教授的惩罚。

【录音原文】

M: Professor Dalton caught some students cheating on the final exam and failed them right then and there.

W: It serves them right. I don’t sympathize with anyone trying to pass that way.

Q: What is the woman’s attitude toward the professor’s action?

Part B

Directions: In this part, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passages and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, C and D. Then blacken the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.

11.A. How to settle a consumer’s complaint about a faulty item.

  B. How to make an effective complaint about a faulty item.

  C. How to avoid buying a faulty item.

  D. How to deal with complaints from customers.

12.A. To a shop assistant.

  B. To the manufacturer.

  C. To a store manager.

  D. To a public organization.

13.A. By explaining exactly what is wrong with the item.

  B. By showing the faulty item to the manufacturer.

C. By saying firmly that the item is of poor quality.

  D. By asking politely to change the item.

【答案与解析】

11.B  短文主要讲的是consumers在购买了有问题的商品后,应该如何有效投诉,解决问题。

12.C  短文提到“一般而言,消费者向越高层投诉,the faster he or she can expect it to be settled”。

13.A  短文指出“当顾客能够demonstrate what is wrong with the item时,投诉是最为有效的”。

【录音原文】

When a consumer finds that an item she or he bought is faulty or in some other way does not live up to the manufacturer’s claim for it, the first step is to present the warranty, or any other records which might help, at the store of purchase. In most cases, this action will produce results. However, if it does not, there are various means the consumer may use to gain satisfaction.

A simple and common method used by many consumers is to complain directly to the store manager. In general, the “higher up” the consumer takes his or her complaint, the faster he or she can expect it to be settled. In such a case, it is usually settled in the consumer’s favor, assuming he or she has a just claim.

Consumers should complain in person whenever possible, but if they cannot get to the place of purchase, it is acceptable to phone or write the complaint in a letter.

Complaining is usually most effective when it is done politely but firmly, and especially when the consumer can demonstrate what is wrong with the item in question. If this cannot be done, the consumer will succeed best by presenting specific information as to what is wrong, rather than by making general statements. For example, “The left speaker does not work at all and the sound coming out of the right one is unclear ” is better than “This stereo does not work”.

The store manager may advise the consumer to write to the manufacturer. If so, the consumer should do this, stating the complaint as politely and as firmly as possible. But if a polite complaint does not achieve the desired result, the consumer can go a step further. She or he can threaten to take the seller to court or report the seller to a private or public organization responsible for protecting consumers’ rights.

Question 11: What does this passage mainly talk about?

Question 12: To whom should a consumer complain if he wants a quick settlement of his problem?

Question 13: How can a consumer make the most effective complaint, according to the passage?

14.A. It is usually evil.

  B. It is usually moral.

C. It is usually weak.

  D. It is usually powerful.

15.A. They use ideas of right and wrong to control themselves,

  B. They use the way of good human beings to get and keep power.

  C. They are special human beings and have different morality.

  D. They should be evil people by nature.

16.A. Weak people use ideas of good and evil to excuse weakness.

  B. Political leaders should know how to be bad.

  C. Political leaders often use physical force to fight for the power.

  D. Political leaders are afraid to desert morality.

【答案与解析】

14.A  文中指出“In Michiavelli’s opinion, the nature of human beings is usually evil”。

15.C  Michiavelli认为政治家们above ordinary human beings,also above ordinary morality,选项C正确。

16.D  文中指出these leaders are not usually afraid to leave morality behind,选项D“政治领导人通常会担心失掉道德”,与文意不符合。

【录音原文】

Many historians of the twentieth century look back at the fifteenth century and say, “Michiavelli was the first political scientist in history.” They say that he looked at politics for the first time with the factual eye of a scientist. He was only interested in the facts. He thought that politics and morality didn’t go together very often, but he studied ideas of right and wrong, along with politics; government leaders, he wrote, could use these ideas to get and keep power.

In Michiavelli’s opinion, the nature of human beings is usually evil, so a good person must always fail. He thought it was important for a political leader to know how to be bad. In fact, Michiavelli saw leaders of government as people above ordinary human beings; so, he believed, they are also above ordinary morality. Good and evil, he said, are only ideas that weak people use

to excuse weakness; powerful people use their ideas to keep other people weak. They can lead because they want power and because they fight for it. Also, these leaders are not usually afraid to leave morality behind, so they don’t have ideas of right or wrong to stop them. They think only of

power. It is nice, Michiavelli said, if political leaders can also be good people, but they must know how to be bad when the time comes.

Michiavelli said that it is natural to fight for power and that there are two methods people use: law and physical force. The first method is the way of human beings, and the second method is the way of animals. Great political leaders very often use the way of animals, but they usually pretend to use the way of good human beings. They do this to get and keep power.

Question 14: What did Michiavelli think of the nature of human beings?

Question 15: What did Michiavelli think of political leaders?

Question 16: Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?

17.A. 380.

  B. 850.

  C. 5,600.

  D. 7,000.

18.A. A warming of relations between the two countries.

  B. The occurrence of a new war and bitter conflict.

  C. The indirect intervention from the international community.

  D. Its great contribution to the peace in the Middle East.

19.A. For its acts in the Persian Gulf War.

  B. For its experiments with nuclear weapons.

  C. For its support of Islamic organizations.

  D. For its aggression against Kuwait.

20. A. Some analysts thought hostility between Iraq and Iran remained extremely high.

  B. The civilian population suffered 2 million casualties from the Iran-Iraq war.

  C. Iran was viewed by certain members of the international community as a “rogue” State.

  D. It was about 10 years after the war that Iran and lraq began an exchange of prisoners.

【答案与解析】

17.C  短文提到Nearly 5,600 of those still held in captivity were Iraqis,选项C正确。

18.A  短文说“1991年海湾战争以来,政治分析家预言了A warming of relations between the two nations”。

19.D  从录音原文“Iraq, outcast from the international community due to its acts of aggression against neighboring Kuwait”,可知选项D正确。

20.B  录音说“civilian population suffered the brunt of the 1 million casualties”,选项B不符合。

【录音原文】

Some 10 years after warfare between the two countries came to an end, the nations of Iran and lraq began an exchange of prisoners who bad been captured during the Iran-Iraq war, which raged from 1979 to 1988. Nearly 5,600 of those still held in captivity were Iraqis who had been seized by the Iranian army during the war. The Iranian government agreed to release those prisoners in exchange for some 380 Iranian prisoners held by the Iraqi government. The announced prisoner exchange marked the largest such repatriation of prisoners from the lran-Iraq war since 1990, when the two governments exchanged more than 70,000 soldiers taken captive during the war. Officials from both countries expressed the belief that the repatriation of the remaining prisoners from the lran-Iraq war might help repair relations between the two neighbors after two decades of war and bitter conflict.

A warming of relations between the two nations had been predicted by political analysts since the Persian Gulf War in 1991. Analysts suggested that Iraq, outcast from the international community due to its acts of aggression against neighboring Kuwait, might seek to forge a stronger international bond with Iran. Like Iraq, Iran remained on the outskirts of the international community and viewed by certain members of the international community as a “rogue” state because of its support of Islamic fundamentalist organizations throughout the Middle East. Despite the warming of official relations as evidenced by the exchange of the prisoners of war, several analysts emphasized that hostility between the two countries remained extremely high-especially among the civilian population, which suffered the brunt of the 1 million casualties from the lran-Iraq war.

Question 17: How many Iraqi prisoners were still held by the Iranian government, according to the news?

Question 18: What had political analysts predicted about the exchange of prisoners between Iran and Iraq?

Question 19: For what reason was Iraq driven away from the international community?

Question 20: Which of the following is NOT true, according to the news?

SECTION II  READING COMPREHENSION ( 30 points )

Directions: There are 5 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should decide on the best choice and then blacken the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.

Passage One

Questions 21 to 24 are based on the following passage:

Right now in schools across the country children are busy selling Pepsi-Cola in the name of education. They are part of Pepsi’s “Learn and Earn Project”—an annual competition set up by Pepsi that encourages students to sell the soft drink at parties, basketball games and other school functions.

Then, each spring, the students write up their Pepsi-selling success stories for a chance at national prizes: shares of stock in the Pepsi-Cola Company.

According to materials the company sends the teachers, the project declares “help strengthen students’ broad understanding of business, particularly its merchandising aspect.”

Whether it fulfills this objective or not, it does succeed in selling Pepsi.

The “Learn and Earn Project” is just one example of the hundreds of ways food companies (as well as other types of corporations, public utilities and trade associations) promote their products in schools. Particularly in the fields of nutrition and home economics, companies send numerous  “teaching aids”: highly professional films, shiny workbooks and pamphlets, all available to teachers at well below commercial rates or free.

For example, the Savannah Sugar Refining Corp. puts out a book for students called “Sugar Through the Ages” which includes statements such as “Scientists have found that generous amounts of sugar are a valuable part of well-balanced diets for growing children.” By far the largest supplier of nutrition-education materials to schools is the National Dairy Council, which provides all sorts of pamphlets addressing questions ranging from “How am I doing socially?” to “How am I doing physically?” Woven throughout these materials are subtle references to dairy products, daily calcium requirements, etc. Drink milk, the message seems to be, and you too can be popular.

But nutrition and home economics are not the only areas where corporations have found a lucrative form of advertising.

21.What is NOT true of Pepsi’s “Learn and Earn Project”?

A. It is carried out every year.

  B. Students may gain a better understanding of business administration.

  C. Students selling Pepsi-Cola successfully will become stockholders in the company.

  D. The Pepsi Company gains much profit from it.

22. In citing the statement from the book “Sugar Through the Ages” (Para. 6), the author’s purpose is________.

  A. to expose the true motives of those corporations in providing their “teaching aids”

  B. to praise the Savannah Sugar Refining Corp. for its scientific point of view

  C. to explain the educational function of the “teaching aids”

  D. to show how students and teachers can receive nutrition education more scientifically

23. What is said about the educational materials supplied by the National Dairy Council?

  A. They strongly recommend the use of dairy products on a daily basis.

  B. They indirectly mention the importance of dairy products.

  C. They subtly deal with questions about the popularity of dairy products.

  D. They incorrectly report the nutritional components of dairy products.

24.What is the main idea of the passage?

  A. Pepsi’s “Learn and Earn Project” helps broaden students’ understanding of business.

  B. Many big companies finance schools’ educational projects.

  C. Students learn much knowledge of nutrition and home economics through their practice of business.

  D. Various types of corporations extend the promotion of their products to schools.

【答案与解析】

21.C  第二段说the students write up…success stories for a chance at national prizes并不是说销售成功的学生就能获得股份。

22.A  根据第五段one example of the hundreds of ways food companies, promote their products in schools…companies send numerous ‘teaching aids’…接下来又在第六段举了Savannah Sugar的例子,说明这些公司的真正目的:借着teaching aids的名义来促销自己的产品。所以答案为选项A。

23.B  第六段最后一句讲到Woven throughout these materials are subtle references to dairy products, daily calcium requirements,可见National Dairy Council的材料都是间接地提到了奶制品的重要性。

24.D  本文通过一系列例子主要说明食品公司向学校推销商品的各种手段。

Passage Two

Questions 25 to 28 are based on the following passage:

In general, our society is becoming one of giant enterprises directed by a bureaucratic management in which man becomes a small, well-oiled cog in the machinery. The oiling is done with higher wages, well-ventilated factories and piped music, and by psychologists and “human-relations” experts; yet all this oiling does not alter the fact that man has become powerless, that he does not wholeheartedly participate in his work and that he is bored with it. In fact, the blue-and the white-collar workers have become economic puppets who dance to the tune of automated machines and bureaucratic management.

The worker and employee are anxious, not only because they might find themselves out of a job; they are anxious also because they are unable to acquire any real satisfaction or interest in life. They live and die without ever having confronted the fundamental realities of human existence as emotionally and intellectually independent and productive human beings.

Those higher up on the social ladder are no less anxious. Their lives are no less empty than those of their subordinates. They are even more insecure in some respects. They are in a highly competitive race. To be promoted or to fall behind is not a matter of salary but even more a matter of self-respect. When they apply for their first job, they are tested for intelligence as well as for the tight mixture of submissiveness and independence. From that moment on they are tested again and again—by the psychologists, for whom testing is a big business, and by their superiors, who judge their behavior, sociability, capacity to get along, etc. This constant treed to prove that one is as good as or better than one’s fellow competitor creates constant anxiety and stress, the very causes of unhappiness and illness.

Am I suggesting that we should return to the preindustrial mode of production or to nineteenth-century “free enterprise” capitalism? Certainly not. Problems are never solved by returning to a stage which one has already outgrown. I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities—those of love and of reason—are the aims of all social arrangements. Production and consumption should serve only as means to this end, and should be prevented from ruling man.

25. By “a well-oiled cog in the machinery” the author intends to render the idea that man is ______.

A. a necessary part of the society though each individual’s function is negligible

  B. working in complete harmony with the rest of the society

  C. an unimportant part in comparison with the rest of the society, though functioning smoothly

  D. a humble component of the society, especially when working smoothly

26.The real cause of the anxiety of the workers and employees is that ______.

  A. they are likely to lose their jobs

  B. they are deprived of their individuality and independence

  C. they take no interest in life and work

  D. they are faced with the fundamental realities of human existence

27.From the passage we can infer that real happiness of life belongs to those ______.

  A. who are at the bottom of the society

  B. who are higher up in their social status

  C. who prove better than their fellow competitors

  D. who could keep far away from this competitive world

28.To solve the present social problems the author suggests that we should ______.

  A. enable man to fully develop his potentialities

  B. offer higher wages to the workers and employees

  C. resort to the production mode of our ancestors

  D. take the fundamental realities for granted

【答案与解析】

25.C  第一段作者在提出人类是a well-oiled cog in the machinery后紧接着就对其进行解释man has become powerless和have become economic puppets,由此可以判断选项C正确。

26.B  根据第二段They live and die…the fundamental realities…emotionally and intellectually independent and productive human beings.可知,workers and employees担心的原因是他们被剥夺了individuality and independence,所以答案为选项B。

27.D  第三段讲述了the higher up in the society也会焦虑,从阐述的原因中可以排除选项A、B、C项。

28.A  最后一段作者提出I suggest…a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities…all social arrangements,选项A表述与之符合。

Passage Three

Questions 29 to 32 are based on the following passage:

Superstition is a biased word. Look up almost any dictionary definition and you wilt see that it implies that every religion not based on reason or knowledge is called a superstition. Even the word knowledge is a two-faced word. Presumably, it is used as a synonym for reason. What it all comes down to is that people designate as superstitious what they do not think reasonable in someone else’s religion.

It is true that a person’s religion must be based on some kind of knowledge. But what kind of knowledge is meant? Scientific, experimental, rational? Such knowledge is natural and maybe ethical and then it is natural religious knowledge. A person may quite easily conclude from observing the universe that only God could have produced it. That knowledge is not religion, not even if I see myself bound to recognize a Creator of the universe. It is natural knowledge such as Confucious, Socrates or Zoroaster possessed.

Natural religious knowledge, as is evident in the history of the human race, although it helps to make a man good, hardly suffices to keep him good, especially in times of crisis. Will such natural knowledge, for instance, sustain a man when he has suddenly lost all his money and even his wife and children? Will it offer the hope of ever seeing them again? Will it influence him gladly to sacrifice his life for his family, his country, his religion? Only a strong sense of supernatural religion, a reliance upon God, will provide the necessary courage for right action.

All the great religions of the world—Christianity, Hinduism, Chinese Buddhism and Islam—have shown men the way to such courage and its resulting peace of mind and heart and peace with all men. They point to a better sort of life, mostly a life somewhere else, or, at least, an end to the troubles of this life.

Christianity and Islam direct men to look up, hope for and strive after an eternal life of happiness in the possession of God. Hinduism, although it believes in reincarnations, also encourages its adherents to achieve successively higher incarnations until they achieve unity, become one with Brahman-God. Chinese Buddhism tells its followers that if they perform good deeds and have faith in Omitofoo by frequently calling upon this God of Infinite Compassion they will be rewarded by eternal life in the Western Paradise.

The agnostic or the atheist thinks of all of those creeds as religious superstition. Are the agnostic and the atheist free of superstition? Hardly. Every thinking man has a natural bent for religion, for ideals above and beyond earthly ones. If he crushes his natural inclination, which is God-inspired, he most likely will substitute a series of self-inspired ideals or some fad like astrology, which will become a religion for him.

There is a line between religion and superstition which everyone must learn to identify, or forfeit a true direction in his life.

29.People define superstition as ______.

A. someone else’s religion

  B. religious knowledge not based on reason

  C. natural knowledge of a religion

  D. anything that seems unreasonable in another person’s religion

30.Natural religious knowledge may not keep a person good because ______.

  A. he may lose confidence in God

  B. he may suffer crises in his career

  C. he does not rely upon God

  D. he may have to die for right action

31.According to the writer, all the great religions of the world ______.

  A. bring peace of mind and peace with other human beings

  B. give courage to their adherents to live and to die

  C. bring a better life now and hereafter

  D. promise eternal life in the Western Paradise

32.From the passage we are told that the atheists ______.

  A. have little or no religious knowledge

  B. are not free of superstition

  C. have ideals that are beyond earthly ones

  D. have too many materialistic ideals in life

【答案与解析】

29.D  根据第一段最后一句people designate as superstitious what they do not think reasonable in someone else’s religion.可直接得出答案为选项D。

30.C  根据第三段最后一句Only a strong sense of supernatural religion, a reliance upon God, will provide …可以推断Natural religious knowledge不能keep a person good的原因是nor rely on God。所以答案为选项C。

31.A  根据第四段第一句All the great religions…resulting peace of mind and heart and peace with all men.可知,作者认为世界上所有的great religions都给人们带来了peace of mind and peace with other human beings。

32.B  第六段第二句提到Are the agnostic and the atheist free of superstition? Hardly.由此可以判断无神论者也决非不受迷信的干扰。所以答案为选项B。

Passage Four

Questions 33 to 36 are based on the following passage:

It is all very well to blame traffic jams, the cost of petrol and the quick pace of modern life, but manners on the roads are becoming horrible. Everybody knows that the nicest men become monsters behind the wheel. It is all very well, again, to have a tiger in the driver’s, but to have one in the driver’s seat is another matter altogether. You might tolerate the odd road hog, the rude and inconsiderate, but nowadays the well-mannered motorist is the exception to the rule. Perhaps the situation calls for “Be Kind to Other Drivers’ Campaign”, otherwise it may get completely out of hand.

Road politeness is not only good manners, but good sense too. It takes the most cool-headed and good-tempered of drivers to resist the temptation to revenge when subjected to uncivilized behavior. On the other hand, a little politeness goes a long way towards relieving the tensions of motoring. A friendly nod or a wave of acknowledgment in response to an act of politeness helps to create an atmosphere of goodwill and tolerance so necessary in modern traffic conditions. But such acknowledgments of politeness are all too rare today. Many drivers nowadays don’t even seem able to recognize politeness when they see it.

However, misplaced politeness can also be dangerous. Typical examples are the driver who brakes violently to allow a car to emerge from a side street at some hazard to following traffic, when a few seconds later the road would be clear anyway; or the man who waves a child across a zebra crossing into the path of oncoming vehicles that may be unable to stop in time. The same goes for encouraging old ladies to cross the road wherever and whenever they care to. It always amazes me that the highways are not covered with the dead bodies of these grannies.

A veteran driver, whose manners are faultless, told me it would help if motorists learnt to filter correctly into traffic streams one at a time without causing the total blockages that give rise to bad temper Unfortunately, modem motorists can’t even learn to drive, let alone master the subtler aspects of roadsmanship. Years ago the experts warned us that the car-ownership explosion would demand a lot more give-and-take from all road users. It is high time for all of us to take this message to heart.

33. The sentence “You might tolerate the odd road-hog ... the rule. (Para. 1)” implies that ______.

  A. our society is unjust towards well-mannered motorists

  B. rude drivers can be met only occasionally

  C. the well-mannered motorist cannot tolerate the road-hog

  D. nowadays impolite drivers constitute the majority of motorists

34.By “good sense”, the writer means ______.

  A. the driver’s ability to understand and react reasonably

  B. the driver’s prompt response to difficult and severe conditions

  C. the driver’s tolerance of rude or even savage behavior

  D. the driver’s acknowledgment of politeness and regulations

35. Experts have long pointed out that in the face of car-ownership explosion, ______.

  A. road users should make more sacrifice

  B. drivers should be ready to yield to each other

  C. drivers should have more communication among themselves

  D. drivers will suffer great loss if they pay no respect to others

36.In the writer’s opinion ______.

  A. strict traffic regulations are badly needed

  B. rude drivers should be punished

  C. drivers should apply road politeness properly

  D. drivers should avoid traffic jams

【答案与解析】

33.D  根据the exception to the rule可以推断,现在大多数的司机是没有礼貌的。

34.A  第二段提到good sense意味着cool-headed, good-tempered, resist the temptation to revenge when,选项A符合原文意思。

35B  最后一段提到Years ago the experts warned us …demand a lot more give-and-take … ,give-and-take意思是“妥协,互让”。

36.C  文章主要在讲road politeness。第二段讲了road politeness的好处,但第三段又指出misplaced politeness can also be dangerous,综合可以得出司机们应该适当利用road politeness。

Passage Five

Questions 37 to 40 are based on the following passage:

The importance and focus of the interview in the work of the print and broadcast journalist is reflected in several books that have been written on the topic. Most of these books, as well as several chapters, mainly in, but not limited to, journalism and broadcasting handbooks and reporting texts, stress the “how to” aspects of journalistic interviewing rather than the conceptual aspects of the interview, its context, and implications. Much of the “how to” material is based on personal experiences and general impressions. As we know, in journalism as in other fields, much can be learned from the systematic study of professional practice. Such study brings together evidence from which broad generalized principles can be developed.

There is, as has been suggested, a growing body of research literature in journalism and broadcasting, but very little significant attention has been devoted to the study of the interview itself. On the other hand, many general texts as well as numerous research articles on interviewing in fields other than journalism have been written. Many of these books and articles present the theoretical and empirical aspects of the interview as well as the training of the interviewers. Unhappily, this plentiful general literature about interviewing pays little attention to the journalistic interview. The fact that the general literature on interviewing does not deal with the journalistic interview seems to be surprising for two reasons. First, it seems likely that most people in modern Western societies are more familiar, at least in a positive manner, with journalistic interviewing than with any other form of interviewing. Most of us are probably somewhat familiar with the clinical interview, such as that conducted by physicians and psychologists. In these situations the professional person or interviewer is interested in getting information necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of the person seeking help. Another familiar situation is the job interview. However, very few of us have actually been interviewed personally by the mass media, particularly by television. And yet, we have a vivid acquaintance with the journalistic interview by virtue of our roles as readers, listeners, and viewers. Even so, true understanding of the journalistic interview, especially television interviews, requires thoughtful analyses and even study, as this book indicates.

37.The main idea of the first paragraph is that ______.

A. generalized principles for journalistic interviews are the chief concern for writers on journalism

B. importance should be attached to the systematic study of journalistic interviewing

C. concepts and contextual implications are of secondary importance to journalistic interviewing

D. personal experiences and general impressions should be excluded from journalistic interviews

38.Much research has been done on interviews in general ______.

  A. so the training of journalistic interviewers has likewise been strengthened

  B. though the study of the interviewing techniques hasn’t received much attention

  C. but journalistic interviewing as a specific field has unfortunately been neglected

  D. and there has also been a dramatic growth in the study of journalistic interviewing

39.Westerners are familiar with the journalistic interviews, ______.

  A. but most of them wish to stay away from it

  B. and many of them hope to be interviewed some day

  C. and many of them would like to acquire a true understanding of it

  D. but most of them may not have been interviewed in person

40.The passage is most likely a part of ______.

  A. a preface

B. a journalistic interview

  C. a research report

  D. a news article

【答案与解析】

37.B  第一段提出中心话题journalistic interviewing,从第一段As we know…learned from the systematic study…can be developed可知本文主要讲的是要重视对journalistic interviewing的系统化学习。所以答案为选项B。

38.C  根据第二段第二句On the other hand…have been written和第四句Unhappily, …pays little attention to the journalistic interview.可知,journalistic interviewing这个特定的领域被人们忽视了。所以选项C与原文意思相符。

39.D  根据第二段倒数第三句however, very few of US have actually been interviewed personally…可知选项D表述内容与原文符合。

40.A  从文中最后一句as this book indicates可以推断此文的主要目的在于介绍某本书,应该是书的前言。

SECTION III VOCABULARY  ( 10 points)

Directions: In this section, there are twenty sentences with one word or phrase underlined each. Choose one of the four choices marked A, B, C and D that best keeps the meaning of the sentence if it is substituted for the underlined word or phrase. Then blacken the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.

41. Bush’s first major political setback was the downfall of his original choice for secretary of defense—John G. Tower, who was discredited for improper behavior in both professional and private affairs.

  A. assault 

B. humiliation

  C. strategy 

D. frustration

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】setback挫折,失败。frustration受挫,灰心。assault攻击,袭击。humiliation羞辱,丢脸。strategy战略,策略。

42. When asked if there were any circumstances under which they would declare war, he dismissed such questions as purely hypothetical.

  A. imaginary  

B. pessimistic

  C. inevitable

D. ironical

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】hypothetical假设的,假定的。imaginary假想的,虚构的。

43. The entire world deplores this tragic situation and agrees that swift action is needed.

  A. despises 

B. condemns

  C. shocks 

D. mourns

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】deplore悲叹,痛惜,非难。condemn谴责,判刑。despise鄙视,看不起。mourn哀悼,为…哀痛。

44. Universities are frequently judged on the basis of the accomplishments of their professors and scientists. Scientists who publish, therefore, bring prestige to their college or university.

  A. attainment  

B. appreciation

  C. recognition 

D. reputation

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】prestige威信,声望。reputation名气,名声,名望。attainment成就,造诣,达到。

45. In the early days of journalism, news was put together by mostly anonymous individuals. As newspapers grew, staff of full-time reporters went out to get the news.

  A. amateur 

B. restrictive

  C. obscure

D. specific

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】anonymous无名的,不知名的。obscure不出名的,名不见经传的。amateur业余的。restrictive限制的。

46. In 1962, during an election campaign, the Canadian government attempted to boost the economy by lowering the value of the Canadian dollar.

  A. advocate

B. adjust

  C. reform 

D. stimulate

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】boost推进,使增长,提高。stimulate激励,刺激。advocate提倡,主张。

47. The chief function of most systems of exchange control is to prevent or redress an adverse balance of payments by limiting foreign-exchange purchases to an amount not in excess of foreign-exchange receipts.

  A. eliminate

B. remedy

  C. evade  

D. decrease

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】redress改正,纠正。remedy补救,矫正,治疗。eliminate排除,消除,淘汰。evade逃避,回避。

48. Ready, to resort to almost any means to secure the Mexican territories of New Mexico and upper California, James K. Polk used a border incident as a(n) pretext for commencing a war with Mexico.

  A. excuse 

B. occurrence

  C. origin 

D. offense

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】pretext借口,托词。excuse借口。occurrence发生(的事情)。

49. In 1636 Rembrandt began to depict quieter, more contemplative scenes with a new warmth in color.

  A. impressive 

B. magnificent

  C. inspiring

D. thoughtful

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】contemplative深思的,仔细考虑的。thoughtful沉思的,思考的。impressive给人印象深刻的。magnificent壮丽的,宏伟的,极好的。inspiring 鼓舞人心的。

50. Governmental buildings are usually designed to present a (n) solemn and awe-inspiring look.

  A. imposing

B. mystical

  C. aspiring  

D. stylish

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】solemn庄严的,严肃的。imposing庄严的,雄伟的。mystical神秘的,玄妙的。aspiring有抱负的,有志向的。stylish时髦的,入时的。

51. The animals would charge no matter how badly wounded, and in their death struggles, bellowing and rolling from side to side, they seemed to refuse to die.

  A. gasping 

B. choking

  C. howling

D. puffing

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】bellow咆哮,怒吼。howl嚎叫,咆哮。gasp喘气,喘息。choke(使)窒息,呛,塞住。puff(使)一阵阵地吹或喷,喘气。

52. Almost everyone has experienced the joy of sports. Nevertheless, thoughtful observers will continue to reflect on the pros and cons of the modern drive to rationalize sports in a quest for the ultimate possible athletic performance.

  A. debate   

B. stipulate

  C. signify 

D. ponder

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】reflect on认真思考,仔细考虑。ponder思索,思考。debate辩论,争论。stipulate规定,明确要求。

53. In most South American countries rail transport is plagued by operational problems as well as by obsolete equipment.

  A. deficient

B. outdated

  C. inferior 

D. imperfect

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】obsolete过时的,陈旧的。outdated过时的。deficient缺乏的,不足的。inferior劣等的,次的。imperfect不完美的,有缺陷的。

54. The racial interpretation of history and the fascist contempt for democracy lured Germany into war against Communist and democracy.

  A. tempted

B. imposed

  C. constrained 

D. engaged

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】lure引诱,诱惑。tempt引诱,诱惑。impose把…强加于,征(税等)。constrain限制,约束,抑制。engage(使)从事,(使)忙于。

55. Some forgeries are intended to confound or ridicule the experts; others are intended to imitate an artist or genre.

  A. scorn  

B. perplex

  C. appraise 

D. irritate

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】confound使困惑,使惊疑。perplex使困惑,使费解。scorn轻视,鄙视。appraise评定,鉴定,评价。irritate激怒,使烦恼。

56. In William Shakespeare’s King Lear, as the extent of Lear’s folly becomes ever clearer, he rages at his impotence and goes mad.

  A. inability   

B. dilemma

  C. insecurity  

D. stupidity

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】impotence无能为力的。inability无能,无力。dilemma窘境,困境。insecurity不安全。stupidity愚蠢。

57. The contrast of the gray, cheerless, and shabby cities and towns of the former eastern Germany with the picture-postcard luster of the western sector was an eloquent testimony to the divergences that had to be overcome.

  A. barrier 

B. restraint

  C. hazard 

D. evidence

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】testimony证据,证明。evidence证据,根据。barrier障碍,关卡,屏障。restraint抑制,限制,约束。hazard危险,风险。

58. It was the responsibility of government to provide instruction so that the talented would be able to enter government service and thus perpetuate the moral and ethical foundation of society.

  A. stabilize  

B. launch

  C. maintain  

D. reinforce

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】perpetuate使永久,使持续。maintain维持,保持。stabilize使稳定。launch发动,发起。reinforce加强,巩固。

59. Relentless rains triggered heavy flooding in nine provinces, where 68 persons were killed. The government pledged relief funds of $2.8 million to assuage the calamitous damage.

  A. disastrous 

B. ruthless

  C. persistent 

D. tragic

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】calamitous灾难的。disastrous灾难的。ruthless无情的,残忍的。persistent坚持不懈的,持续的。tragic悲剧的。

60. The rationale for the government’s involvement in each mode of transportation is that a strong transportation system is necessary for developing the nation’s economy or for its defense.

  A. conviction

B. principle

  C. premise

D. medium

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】rationale理论基础,基本原理。principle原则,原理。conviction确信,信念。premise前提,假设。medium媒介,手段。

SECTION IV  ERROR IDENTIFICATION (10 points)

Directions: In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and marked A, B, C and D. Identify which of the four parts is incorrectly used and then blacken the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.

61. In a society that places so much emphasis to “making it”, we fail to recognize that what looks

   A   B  C

like failure may, in the long run, prove beneficial.

   D

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】改为on,place emphasis on sth.,固定结构。

62. Most of the changes occurring in patterns of family planning have taken place before public

A B

family services were established and at considerable emotional and physical costs to many

C D

couples.

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】改为had taken place,此动作发生在谓语动词动作之前,应用过去完成时态。

63. By distinguishing herself for a judge in Arizona, Sandra Day O’Connor caught President

  A   B   C

Reagan’s attention and was appointed the first woman justice on the Supreme Court.

   D

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】改为as,意为“作为一个法官”。

64. From the 1960s, international terrorist crimes, such as hijacking of passenger aircraft, political

   A   B

assassinations and urban bombings constituted a growing phenomenon of increasing concern,

  C   D

especially to Western governments.

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】hijacking of改为the hijacking of。

65. Because its body is supported by water, the blue whale can grow to a size considerably larger

A   B C

than any alive land mammal today.

D

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】alive land mammal改为land mammal alive,alive修饰名词时放在所修饰的名词之后。

66. Bricks are made from clay that is processed into a workable consistency, form standard size,

A   B  C

and then fired in a kiln.

  D

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】form改为forming,现在分词短语作结果状语。

67. All those, what their major is, who received their early and advanced education through the

A B C

medium of English or happen to be native speakers, are potential teachers of the language.

  D

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】改为whatever,意为“无论他们是什么专业”。

68. It is a great pity that in the world of light the gift of sight is used only as a merely convenience

A  B

rather than as a means of adding fullness to life.

C   D

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】改为mere,形容词修饰名词convenience。

69. Man seems to be reaching a point he has always dreamed, when he will be the master of the

  A   B C  D

world around him.

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】改为dreamed of,dream of固定结构,意为“幻想,想象”。

70. What do you think of our proposal that the production will rise at the rate of 10 percent a year?

   A B   C  D

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】改为rise,proposal引导的同位语从句应用虚拟语气,结构为(should)do。

PAPER  TWO

SECTION V  WORD FORMATION   ( 5 points )

Directions: Form a word from the word given at the end of each sentence. Write the word you have formed in the proper space on the Answer Sheet.

71. In the earlier part of its history the ______ of technology was almost independent of science. (evolve)

72. It is ______ o note that recent advances in radio astronomy have allowed much greater accuracy to be achieved, and Einstein’s prediction is now verified within about 1 percent, (gratify)

73. Used in police interrogation and investigation since 1924, the lie detector is still ______ among psychologists and not always judicially acceptable. (controvert)

74. Bursts of creativity often follow a period of “incubation”, sometimes even of depression and may result from mental activity beyond the reach of ______ (conscious)

75. For a hundred years an ______ peace prevailed in Europe, leaving the powers free to pursue interests in other parts of the world. (ease)

【答案与解析】

71.evolution  the evolution of technology技术的演化过程。

72.gratifying令人高兴和满意的。

73.controversial引起争议的。

74.consciousness知觉,察觉。

75.uneasy  an uneasy peace一种不稳定的和平。

SECTION VI  TRANSLATION  (10 points)

Directions: Translate the following paragraphs into Chinese. Your translation should be written in the proper space on the Answer Sheet.

The market for manufactured goods is what economists call “imperfect”, because each company has its own style, and its own reputation; and all of the arts of advertisement and salesmanship are devoted to making it even more imperfect by attracting buyers to particular brand names. Even small businesses that depend upon outside channels of retail distribution may have the final say in what prices they will charge, and great corporations can differentiate their goods in order to create demand for them.

In this type of market, supply normally is very elastic. In the long run, as well as in the short, supply is responsive to demand in the market for manufactures. It is easier to change the composition of a firm’s output than it is to change the production of a mine or a plantation. And when changes in demand are not too rapid, gross profits from one plant can be siphoned off (抽走、转移钱) and invested in something quite different. When business is good, moreover, there is continual new investment so that productive capacity is adapted to meeting changing requirements. Workers themselves may not even be aware of changes in the final commodities to which their work contributes, and the level of wages for any grade of factory labor is very little affected by the fortunes of a particular market.

【参考译文】

经济学家认为商品市场是“不完善”的,因为每家公司都有它自己的经营风格和声誉,所有的广告艺术和销售技巧通过吸引买方购买特定的品牌使这个市场变得更加不完善。甚至连那些依赖于外部零售经销渠道的小企业可能也有权制定价格,大公司则可以细分它们的产品并创造市场对产品的需求。

在这样的市场中,商品供应通常很有灵活性。无论从眼前还是从长远看,对于制造商来说,供应随着市场的需求而变化。改变一个公司的产量结构要比改变一个矿井或农场的生产容易。当需求变化不太快的时候,可以把从一家工厂所获得的毛利抽走投资在其他不同的产品上。生意好的时候,就不断进行新的投资以使生产能力满足日益变化的需求。工人们自己也许意识不到通过他们的劳动所生产出的最终产品的变化,各个级别的产业工人们的工资水平很少受到特定市场的财富的影响。

SECTION VII  WRITING ( 15 points )

Directions: Write a 200-250 composition to present your view on the following question: As hundreds of today’s emerging technologies become part of everyday life, invasion of personal privacy will be inevitable. What measures do you think the government and individuals should take to protect privacy in the digital age?

【参考范文】

Please Leave Individuals a Piece of Space

With the emerging technologies becoming part of life, more and more writers have advocated the simplicity of life since the early nineteenth century. I think what causes this phenomenon is that in this case personal privacy is rudely invaded. Both government and individuals should take measures as follows to protect personal privacy.

To begin with, I think that legislation on the privacy protection should be ensured. Law is the fair machine for governing a country. Counting on the law, society could be stable and people could be settled and convinced.

In addition, government should advocate public morality about respecting others’ privacy. The management of nearly everything needs “both stick and corn”. Now public morality serves as the corn, while the law serves as the stick. And I suppose, this way is the thorough way of protecting personal privacy.

Moreover, as an individual, he or she should be careful enough so that those violators could not take this advantage. People shouldn’t easily give their personal information to websites or some other technology forms.

Human beings need privacy, where the enjoyment of life partly lies. In modern society nowadays, we ask for a piece of comparatively private space. And just as the above mentioned, achieving it requires the exertion from both the government and the individuals.

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