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中国人民大学考博英语历年真题及详解

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中国人民大学考博英语历年真题及详解


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[电子书]中国人民大学考博英语历年真题及详解


目录

封面
内容简介
目录

2010年中国人民大学考博英语真题及详解
2007年中国人民大学考博英语真题及详解
2004年中国人民大学考博英语真题及详解[听力音频]
2003年中国人民大学考博英语真题及详解
2002年中国人民大学考博英语真题及详解
2001年中国人民大学考博英语真题及详解[听力音频]
2000年中国人民大学考博英语真题及详解

隐藏内容简介

考博真题是每个考生复习备考必不可少的资料,而拥有一份权威、正确的参考答案尤为重要,通过研究历年真题能洞悉考试出题难度和题型,了解常考章节与重要考点,能有效指明复习方向。

《中国人民大学考博英语历年真题及详解》由圣才考研网组织人员严格按照中国人民大学考博英语考试大纲精心编写而成。本书收录2000~2004、2007和2010年的考试真题,并提供全部试题的参考答案及详解。本书中的解题思路清晰、答案翔实,帮助广大考生在熟练掌握知识点的同时,能够熟练运用各种题型的答题技巧,以提高应试技巧,把握答题节奏,增强自信心,提高考试分数。

历年真题是很有价值的复习备考资料,通过研习考博真题,可以了解本考试科目的出题风格、难度及命题点。

隐藏试读(部分内容)

2010年中国人民大学考博英语真题及详解

Part I  Vocabulary (20%)

Directions: Choose the best answer (from A, B, C and D) to complete each of the following sentences. Mark your choice with a single bat across the square brackets on your Machining-scoring Answer Sheet.

1. Today scientists have a greater understanding of genetics and its role in ______ organisms.

A. live 

B. life   

C. living  

D. alive

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:现在,科学家对基因学和它对在生物的作用有了更好的理解。living现存的;活着的。alive活着的。live活的,有生命的;真正的。life生命,生物。

2. The news commentator says that the argument the speaker has presented does not ______ water.

A. have 

B. contain 

C. include 

D. hold

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:新闻评论员说发言者的观点不和情理。to hold water:(理论、计划等)证明合理,说得通。

3. Terrorists murder and kidnap people, ______ bombs , hijack airplanes, set fires, and commit other serious crimes.

A. light up 

B. set off 

C. plant in 

D. ignite

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:恐怖犯有分子谋杀绑架,爆炸袭击,劫持飞机,纵火以及其他严重罪行。set off出发,动身;(使)开始;引起;点燃,爆炸。light up照亮,亮起来;点烟,开始吸烟;(使)变得喜悦,(使)兴奋起来。plant in (把…)种入(安置在)…中;把…灌输给…。ignite点燃;引发。

4. Television has become quite the vigorous activity. Sitting up is exhausting so most people ______ down while watching television.

A. lay 

B. lie 

C. lying 

D. lied

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:……熬夜很累,所以很多人躺着看电视。so作为连词,表示结果,从句与主句时态相同。lie down躺着。

5. If each of us does our part little by little, we can ______ the lifespan of our planet and ourselves.

A. enlarge 

B. expand 

C. increase 

D. grow

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:如果我们每个人都一点一滴地尽到我们应有的责任,我们就能延长我们这个星球以及我们自己的寿命。increase应用范围最广,指使(体积,数量,强度,程度,力量,权威,名声,财富等)增大或增长。enlarge  指在大小、程度、容量或范围等方面的扩大。expand 指在大小、面积、容积、体积或范围等方面的增长。grow成长:自然进程中体积的增加。

6. The role of American women ______ significantly from the time the nation was born, to the modern era of the 1950s and 1960s.

A. has changed 

B. has been changed

C. changed 

D. had been changed

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】过去完成时表示一个动作或状态在过去某一时间或动作之前已经完成或结束,也可能是早已完成或结束,即“过去的过去”;也可以指过去的动作延续到过去的某个时刻。本题中中的动作是从过去的某一刻到过去的另一时刻(from…to…)。

7. Financial statement is a financial report or record ______ usually on a quarterly and annually basis which provides an individual’s, an organization’s, or business’s financial status.

A. competed 

B. compiled

C. collated  

D. contested

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:财政决算是通常每季度或每年编辑的财政报告或者记录,能提供个人、组织或者行业财政情况。compile收集; 编辑, 编制。compete竞赛; 竞争。collate校对, 整理。contest争夺, 竞争。

8. Management operates through various ______, often classified as planning organ leading/motivating and controlling.

A. foundations 

B. functions 

C. roles 

D. relations

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:管理行使多种职能,通常可分为策划、领导、激励、控制。function职能,作用。foundation基础, 基本原理, 根据;建立, 设立, 创办。role(个人在某种组织中的)作用,职责。relation关系,交往。

9. The Jatakana culture encompasses every ______ of life from beliefs, superstitions, and practices to art, education and tourism.

A. respect 

B. inspect 

C. aspect 

D. suspect

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:Jatakana 文化包括了生活的方方面面,从信仰、迷信、实践到艺术、教育和旅游。aspect 是指事态、想法、计划等的某个方面,e.g. The training program covers every aspect of the job.训练计划的范围包括了这个工作的各各方面。 respect 是指某一细节的方面,e.g. In many respects, the new version is less good than the old one.从许多方面来看,新的版本并不比旧的强。inspect检查, 检验。suspect怀疑; 不信任。

10. Organizational culture can be defined as a system of shared beliefs and values that develops within an organization and ______ the behavior of its members.

A. guides 

B. indicates 

C. controls 

D. supervises

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:组织文化可以定义为一个组织内部发展起来的共享的信仰和价值观系统,并对成员行为具有指导作用。guides引路; 指导;影响, 支配。indicates标示, 指示, 指出。controls支配,控制。supervises管理,监督。

11. Everyone in America these days seems to be ______ with his or her physical fitness, and everyone is talking about getting in shape.

A. concerned 

B. allured 

C. connected 

D. attracted

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:最近,美国的每个人都似乎很关心他或者她的体型,每个人都在谈论锻炼体型。be concerned with关心,关切;关于。allure诱人。be connect with有关。attract(to)吸引。

12. The Internet has been around for an almost equal amount of time as most of form of media, but only recently a popular way of retrieving information. 

A. has it become 

B. it has become 

C. it becomes 

D. dose it become

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:因特网几乎和大多数媒体同时出现在人们的生活中,只是最近才成为获取信息的流行方式。以否定副词开头并加状语放在句首的句子要求部分倒装。这些否定副词有barely, hardly, little, seldom, scarcely… when, never, no sooner… than, rarely, no more, not nearly, not only等以及only。recently表明动作是从过去的某时刻延续到现在,该剧强调了过去动作对现在造成的影响,故用完成时。

13. Censorship a word that seems to be ______ quite some controversy over certain people, may not be such a bad idea.

A. arguing 

B. attacking 

C. causing 

D. discussing

【答案】C查看答案

【解析】句意:审查这个词,看起来会引发某些人的争议,也许并不是那么糟糕。cause引起。argue争论,辩论。attack攻击,进攻;抨击。discuss谈论,讨论;论述。

14. We are living in the midst of a great chemical experiment and some ______ consequences are becoming apparent to scientists.

A. cereal 

B. serial 

C. series 

D. serious

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:我们居住在一个巨大的化学实验中,一些严重的后果开始显现在科学家面前。serious严重的, 非同小可。cereal谷类植物, 谷物。serial连续的, 一系列的。series连续的同类事物, 系列。

15. For the last 20 years or so the subject of global warming has ______ heated debate among the world’s brightest minds.

A. spawned 

B. injected 

C. modeled 

D. moved

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:在差不多过去的二十年里 ,全球变暖这个话题已经在世界最顶级的人才里引发了激烈的讨论。spawn大量生产;引发,导致,造成。The computer industry has spawned a lot of new companies. 由于电脑工业的发展,许多新公司纷纷成立。inject注射, 注入。model制作模型; 塑造;制作模型; 塑造。move使感动,使打动;移动,搬动。

16. In today’s modern society alcohol addiction and alcohol ______ has become one of the most complex, life-threatening issues.

A. infuse 

B. abuse 

C. reduce 

D. refuse

【答案】B查看答案

【解析】句意:现代社会,酒瘾和酗酒已成为最复杂、威胁生命的问题之一。alcohol abuse酗酒。infuse沏(茶),泡(草药)。reduce缩减,减少;降低。refuse拒绝。

17. He argued that the ______ of firearms in America is an illegal act, and degrades the values this country was founded on.

A. banning 

B. prohibit 

C. veto 

D. forbid

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:他表明,在美国禁止枪械是违法的,有辱这个国家立国的观念。banning禁止,禁令。prohibit (vt.) 禁止;阻止。veto否决权,否认权。forbid (vt.) 禁止。

18. Advocates of private school argue that the education received in one of these facilities is more valuable and than any other educational opportunity.

A. awarded 

B. awarding 

C. rewarded 

D. rewarding

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:私立学校的支持者称私立学校的教育比其他任何一种教育机会更有价值、回报率更高。rewarding报答的,值得做的。awarded和awarding是award的两种形式,不用作形容词。rewarded是reward的另一种形式。

19. Children are often ______ sports at an early age. As they get older and start school they often participate in sports as a way to both make now friends and be active.

A. exposed to 

B. spoiled by 

C. indulged in 

D. worried about

【答案】A查看答案

【解析】句意:孩子很小时经常会接触到运动,当他们大一些开始上学时他们经常参加运动,作为一种结交新友、活跃主动的一种方式。be exposed to接触。be spoiled by被宠坏。be indulged in沉浸于。worry about担心。

20. Although the study of genetics is an entirely new field, it ______ mankind for many years.

A. has combined 

B. has interested in 

B. has involved 

D. has fascinated

【答案】D查看答案

【解析】句意:虽然基因学是个全新的领域,但它使人们着迷多年了。fascinate使着迷, 使极感兴趣。combine (使)联合。interest in对…有兴趣。involve使某事物成为必要条件或结果; 需要;使参与, 牵涉。

Part II  Reading Comprehension(30%)

Directions: Read the following passages and then choose the best answer (from A, B, C and D) to complete each of the following sentences. Mark your choice with a single bat across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring Answer Sheet.

Passage 1

In 1987, H.I.V/AIDS joined a list of diseases that could keep a person out of the United States. The government later tried to cancel its decision. But Congress made the travel ban a part of immigration law. People with H.I.V., the virus that causes AIDS, could seek an exception, but that meant extra work.

Last year, Congress and President George W. Bush began the process of ending the travel ban. Now President Obama is finishing that process.

BARACK OBAMA: “We talk about reducing the stigma of this disease, yet we have treated a visitor living with it as a threat. We lead the world when it comes to helping stem the AIDS pandemic, yet we are one of only a dozen countries that still bar people with H.I.V. from entering our own country.”

A final rule published Monday will end the travel ban effective January fourth. H.I.V. will no longer be a condition that can exclude people. And H.I.V. testing will no longer be required for those who need a medical examination for immigration purposes. AIDS has killed more than twenty-five million people since the early 1980s.

In September, there was news that a vaccine showed some ability to prevent H.I.V. infection in humans for the first time. The full results of the vaccine study were presented in late October at an international conference in Paris. They were also reported in the New England Journal of Medicine. The researchers confirmed that the study in Thailand produced only “modest” results.

The United States Army sponsored the vaccine trial. The study combined two vaccines, using versions of H.I.V. common in Thailand. Neither vaccine alone had shown success in earlier studies.

Thai researchers tested the combination in more than 16,000 volunteers. Half of the volunteers got the vaccine. The others got a placebo, an inactive substance. All were given condoms and counseling on AIDS prevention for three years. The study found 31 percent fewer cases of infection in the vaccine group than in the placebo group.

But critics said the findings could possibly have resulted from chance. The announcement in September was based on all 16, 000 volunteers. Almost one-third of them, however, did not follow all the required steps in the study. Results just from those who did were similar to the larger group, but the influence of chance was more of a possibility.

Still, the researchers said the study produced enough valuable information to offer new hope for AIDS research.

21. According to the article, ______ did not want people with H.I.V virus to seek entry to America twenty years ago.

A. George Bush  

B. Obama 

C. the Congress  

D. the Senate

22. According to this article, it was ______ who sponsored that medical experiment to find vaccine for H.I.V carriers.

A. the Thai Government

B. the French Government

C. the scientist from New England

D. the Unite States Army

23. From the article we can infer that 8, 000 volunteers in ______ were given the vaccine.

A Thailand  

B. United States of America

C. France

D. Canada

24. According to the article, which one of the following statements is true?

A. America was the only country that prevented people with H.I.V from entering the country

B. Only a few countries refused to issue entry visa to people with H.I.V.

C. The conference held in Paris was on AIDS prevention.

D. The vaccine test conducted in Thailand produced important results.

25. According to the critics, the findings of the test ______.

A. has produced enough valuable information

B. should not be taken seriously

C. has produced reliable statistics

D. has paved a solid foundation for further research

【答案与解析】

21.C  根据第一段The government later tried to cancel its decision. But Congress made the travel ban a part of immigration law可知二十年前,政府希望取消对H.I.V携带者的禁令,而国会则将因此产生的禁止过境作为移民法的一部分。A、B项是当前的人物,与二十年前的决定无关。

22.D  根据第六段第一句话The United States Army sponsored the vaccine trial可知选D项。

23.A  根据第五段最后一句话The researchers confirmed that the study in Thailand produced only “modest” results 和第六段第二句话The study combined two vaccines, using versions of H.I.V. common in Thailand.可知这项研究是在泰国做的,可推测其中涉及到的志愿者也是在泰国。

24.B  根据第三段最后一句话we are one of only a dozen countries that still bar people with H.I.V. from entering our own country可知世界上只有少数国家禁止艾滋病毒携带者入境,美国是其中一个,可知B项正确,A项不正确。根据第五段第二句The full results of the vaccine study were presented in late October at an international conference in Paris可知这个会议是个国际会议,研究结果在会上公布,但并没有说明这个会议是关于艾滋病防治的,故C项不正确。根据第五段最后一句话The researchers confirmed that the study in Thailand produced only “modest” results以及后文中对结果可靠性的争论可知这个研究结果并不是十分可信,故D项不正确。

25.B  根据倒数第二段第一句话But critics said the findings could possibly have resulted from chance可知,批评者认为结果具有偶然性,故不应该认真对待。

Passage 2

  “Two hundred eight million, two hundred nine million, two hundred ten million....” That is the sound of solid waste hitting the bottom of garbage cans all over United States in 1996. Solid wastes are materials that are discarded or thrown away after use by consumers and businesses. This does not include fluid materials. During that year, Americans threw away 210 million tons (about 4.3 pounds/2 kilograms per person daily)of garbage. We threw away 12.4 million tons of glass and about 80 million tons of paper products. Americans also threw away large amounts (in tons)of food scraps, yard wastes, plastics, sludge from sewage treatment plants, and other materials. That is almost a mountain of garbage!

  Even though we make an effort to recycle and compost our solid waste, the amount of waste keeps increasing each year. Our biggest problem is where to put the solid waste and how to keep it from polluting our environment. If solid waste is disposed of incorrectly, it can contaminate our surface and underground water supplies. Currently, our municipal waste or waste collected by our cities and towns, goes to landfills. Today, about 85% of our garbage goes to landfills or garbage dumps. This waste must be treated to keep rats, flies, and other animals from building their homes in the landfill. The treatment also prevents the growth of bacteria and other organisms that carry diseases. So, how do we handle this mountain of garbage? Scientists have come up with different methods for handling our waste problem.

  One type of waste, disposal called sanitary landfill was first used in Fresno California, in 1937. In sanitary landfills, the solid waste is spread in thin layers that are compacted and covered with a layer of earth. This is a more expensive method, but it takes away the health hazards that are caused by landfills. It also allows the land to be used for building or recreation. The negative part about these landfills is that it is tough to find open land and this process is very expensive. The land also needs have its water sources protected so that the waste will not pollute the water supply. Landfills (open dumps)and sanitary landfills rely on the natural biodegradability of the solid wastes. Solid waste are biodegradable if they can decay or break down through the action of living organisms and return to the earth. However, certain materials take longer to decay than others, and some materials do not decay or decompose at all. Scientists needed to search for other methods of waste disposal. Incineration and recycling are two methods that are currently in use today.

26. This article is about the disposal problem of solid waste ______.

A. by consumers

B. in California

C. by municipal governments

D. in America

27. From the article we can infer that ______.

A. treatment of solid waste is a hard nut to crack

B. solution to proper disposal of solid waste will be found soon

C. Californians set a good example in solid waste disposal in the 1930s

D. the Government remains confident about the treatment of solid waste

28. According to the article, about ______.is dumped on landhills.

A. 12.4 million tons of garbage

B. 80 million tons of garbage

C. 85% on the garbage

D. 92.4 tons of garbage

29.The word “recycle”(Line 1, Paragraph 2)means ______.

A. to send something far away

B. to throw something away to the right place

C. to convert waste into reusable material

D. to turn into fertilizers

30. According to the article, which one of the following statements is NOT true?

A. Solid waste does not include fluid materials.

B. Sanitary landhill is a type of waste disposal method once used in California.

C. Burning is not a method that is used today to treat waste.

D. Composting is still one of the ways to handle the mountain of garbage.

【答案与解析】

26.D  根据第一段United States和Americans两次反复出现可知本文讨论的是美国固体垃圾处理问题,其中包括消费者和公司。第二段出现的our municipal waste是指市政系统的垃圾,并不禁止市政府,故C项不对。

27.A  根据文章内容可知,每年人们产生大量垃圾,虽然人们致力于再循环利于固体垃圾,但垃圾数量依然逐年增长,而其中放置地点和不污染环境是个大问题。科学家们主要提出了三种方法:垃圾掩埋法,再循环,焚烧。加利福尼亚使用的垃圾掩埋法虽然卫生,但是十分昂贵,而且无法保障全部讲解,故在最后一段作者提出Scientists needed to search for other methods of waste disposal可知固体垃圾处理问题十分棘手,现在在用的方法为再循环和焚烧,而根据第二段所述,这两种方法并不减缓垃圾数量增加的速度。因此可知A项正确,B项并没有提及,C项不正确,可推测政府对此并不乐观,故D项也不正确。

28.C  根据第二段Today, about 85% of our garbage goes to landfills or garbage dumps可知C项正确。

29.C  根据文章可知recycle是一种固体垃圾处理方法,且不同于compost(堆肥),本词原意为“再循环”,可知是“回收利用”的意思。

30.C  根据文章最后一句话Incineration(焚烧) and recycling are two methods that are currently in use today可知C项不正确。

Passage 3

Who would have thought we would become a planet of “ologies”? There’s biology, psychology, herpetology, etymology, and geology just to name a few. However, one “ology” truly helps us to understand the most important part of our planet—our environment. Ecology (which is filled with ecologists) is the study of ecosystems and the beings and organisms that inhabit those ecosystems. Just think, in addition to the bees, deer, and other organisms, you are important to ecologists.

Ecosystems are communities that vary in size and location. They can be as small as a patch of grass or as large as the entire biosphere. The many varieties of plants and animals that exist in our planet’s ecosystems are important to the survival of our ecosystems. Plants in particular provide the oxygen and nutrients all organisms need to survive. These producers have the ability to use the sun’s energy to produce food (think photosynthesis). This is where the animals or consumers become important. The animals get their energy by eating the plants and other organisms within the ecosystem. Without the producers and consumers, decomposers would not have a job. As you may have guessed, decomposers, like bacteria, step in to break down the waste excreted from animals and the remains of dead organisms. Once broken down, the organic materials are absorbed by the soil and gases are sent back into our atmosphere. The whole process is ready to start again through the Earth’s natural cycles. There has to be a balance of producers, consumers, and decomposers in order to maintain a balanced ecosystem.

Remember, all organisms need matter and energy to survive. An ecosystem is balanced when matter and energy move efficiently through those ecosystems. Just as your backpack has a limit on the number of huge textbooks it can carry at any given time, all ecosystems have a limit on the populations they can maintain. Carrying capacity is the largest population an ecosystem can support at any particular time. The support of this population depends on the amount of resources (matter and energy) that are available and the movement of those resources within that ecosystem. If energy and matter are moving efficiently through an ecosystem, then the current population of plants and animals has not reached beyond the ecosystem’s carrying capacity. Once food resources dwindle or animal populations increase dramatically, the ecosystem may not be able to support those populations. Fortunately, nature has three ways to control the balance of ecosystems: ecological responses to change; energy transfer; and food chains and food webs.

31. The purpose of starting the article with the word-ending “ology” (Line 1) is ______.

A. to trace the origin of “ology”

B. to give an example for the meaning of “ology”

C. to introduce the term “ecology”

D. to illustrate the importance of balancing the ecosystems

32. According to this article, the ecosystems ______.

A. are in danger of being destroyed

B. are very small in size

C. refer only to the entire biosphere

D. vary greatly in size and location

33. According to the article, the word “producers”(Line 4, Paragraph 2)refers to ______.

A. plants  

B. animals  

C. ecologists

D. consumers

34. We can infer from the article that. In the ecosystem the job for the “decomposers”(Line 7, Paragraph 2)is to ______.

A. absorb the sun’s energy

B. produce oxygen and nutrients

C. break down the dung and the remains of dead organ

D. eat the plants and animals

35. According to the article, ______.has three ways to control the balance of the ecosystems.

A. human beings

B. the environment

C. animals and plans

D. nature

【答案与解析】

31.C  文章开始提出的ology的一些例子是我们熟知一些词,暗示我们这个词尾的意思,然后说“和这些词相比,有一个ology对我们了解世界上最重要的部分——环境尤为重要”,以此引出ecology这个词。

32.D  根据第二段第一句话Ecosystems are communities that vary in size and location可知D项正确。

33.A  根据These producers中的代词these可知是指前一句中提到plants。

34.C  根据下一句decomposers, like bacteria, step in to break down the waste excreted from animals and the remains of dead organisms可知decomposers起到了分解粪便和生物尸体的作用。

35.D  根据文章最后一句话 nature has three ways to control the balance of ecosystems可知答案为D项。

Passage 4

In modern days, on the western bank of the upper Tigris River stands an Iraqi city called Qal’at Sharqat. Thousands of years ago, this very site was once the capital of a great Mesopotamian empire. At the time, the place had a different name. It was called Ashur or Assur. The word Ashur eventually gave rise to the term Assyria, which was the northern part of Mesopotamia. People living in that region later became known as the Assyrians.

Historians often divide the long history of Assyria into three periods even though they cannot reach a consensus over the exact dates of each era. The three periods were the Old Assyrian Period (circa 2000 B.C. - 1400 B.C.), the Middle Assyrian Period (circa 1365 B.C. - 1100 B.C.), and the Neo-Assyrian Empire (circa 934 B.C. - 609 B.C.)

Archaeological evidence showed that people began to settle in Ashur as early as 2500 B.C. But it did not attain any political significance until the 3rd dynasty of Ur collapsed in 2004 B.C. After that fiasco, the Assyrians transformed Ashur into a bustling commercial center, controlling trade routes to and from Anatolia. In 1813 B.C., the first great Assyrian King, Shamshi-Adad I, ascended the throne and began a series of military expansions. At the height of his reign, his kingdom owned the entire northern Mesopotamia. Its growing influence gave its neighbors plenty of reasons to be wary. While things were going splendidly for this Assyrian upstart, Shamshi-Adad passed away in 1791 B.C. Soon after his death, the kingdom began to fall apart. Knowing that Shamshi-Adad’s empire was on the verge of collapse, Hammurabi of the 1st dynasty of Babylon jumped at the chance and invaded northern Mesopotamia. He conquered Ashur in 1760 B.C. From that point on to the middle of the 1300s B.C., Assyria was reduced to a mere vassal state. At first, it had to answer to the 1st dynasty of Babylon. After that empire was eradicated, it turned to submit to a Hurrian kingdom called Mitanni. It was not until 1365 B.C. that Assyria, then ruled by Ashur-uballit I, was able to regain its independence. For the next couple hundred years, Assyria grew increasingly powerful. It eventually defeated Babylonia and even occupied Egypt.

36. According to the article, the Assyrians lived in part of modern day ______.

A. Egypt 

B. India  

C. China 

D. Iraq

37. According to historians, the history of Assyria has lasted for about ______.

A. 4000years 

B. 3800years 

C. 3100years 

D. 1400years

38. It was during the reign of Shamshi-Adad I, the first great Assyrian King, when the Assyrians ______.

A. began to expand their empire with military forces

B. began to open new trade routes

C. began to encourage commercial activities

D. began to establish diplomatic relations with other countries

39. During the reign of Shamshi-Adad I, the neighbouring countries of Assyrian Empire ______.

A. all showed their respect

B. all admired the achievements of Shamshi-Adad I

C. all became vigilant and anxious

D. all paid tribute to Shamshi-Adad I

40. In history, the Assyrians were once very powerful, and they even occupied ______.at one stage.

A. India 

B. Russia 

C. Egypt 

D. Greece

【答案与解析】

36.D  根据第一段可知亚述人居住的城市现在是一个伊拉克城市。

37.D  根据第二段第一句话可知历史学家将亚述古城的历史分为三个阶段,分别为the Old Assyrian Period (circa 2000 B.C. - 1400 B.C.), the Middle Assyrian Period (circa 1365 B.C. - 1100 B.C.), and the Neo-Assyrian Empire (circa 934 B.C. - 609 B.C.),故可知其历史延续了1400年。

38.A  根据第三段the first great Assyrian King, Shamshi-Adad I, ascended the throne and began a series of military expansions可知A选项正确。

39.C  根据第三段Its growing influence gave its neighbors plenty of reasons to be wary(警惕)可知C项正确,其余选项都没有在文中提及。

40.C  根据文章最后一句话It eventually defeated Babylonia and even occupied Egypt可知C选项正确。

Passage 5

  A line in a song asks, “Does anybody really know what time it is?” This question could easily apply to calendars! Did you know that our ideas about time are affected by religion? Different faiths use different types of calendars to measure time.

  Odd structures, such as Stonehenge in England, may have been used to measure time long ago. These ancient rocks stand in a circle like large, gray Legos. Some people think that the rocks relate to the position of the sun. No one knows how people moved them into this formation, burit was probably a lot of work. If it was a calendar, it sure was a big one! The Aztecs also had a rock calendar that was related to the sun. They had a Sun Stone that showed their sun god in the center.

  The calendar you are probably most familiar with is also based on the sun. The powerful Roman Emperor, Julius Caesar, first adopted the solar calendar in 46 B.C. The cycle of the year in a solar calendar is measured from one equinox to the next. A solar calendar has to be adjusted every so often to keep in time with the sun. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII first authorized taking a few days out of every year for the purpose of adjusting the calendar. People didn’t like this one bit because they thought they were losing time! It tool centuries for Europeans to get used to this concept.

Eventually, a system was worked out to add a single day to the calendar every four years so it was synchronized with the seasons. The extra day made every fourth year 366 days long. These special years are called leap years, and we add the extra day to the month of February. If you know someone whose birthday is on February 29, you know that he or she was born in a leap year. This calendar is called the Gregorian calendar, and it is used in the United States and other Christian countries.

Muslims use a different king of calendar. Their lunar calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and it is completely different than a solar one. According to the Muslim holy book, the Koran, Allah said, “Truly, twelve months is the number of the months with God, according to God’s Book, ever since He created heaven and Earth.” A new Muslim month does not start until two reliable witnesses have seen the new moon. Muslim families often take walks in the evening to find the first yellow slice of the new moon to start Ramadan, their month-log fast.

41. According to the author of the article, ______.has influenced our way of measuring the time.

A. the universe 

B. the Pope 

C. religion  

D. nature 

42. We know from the article that ______.calendar is based on the cycle of the moon.

A. Gregorian 

B. solar 

C. Christian 

D. lunar

43. From the article we can infer that Ramada is a muslin festival, which lasts for ______.

A. one month 

B. one week 

C. four days  

D. twenty five days

44.The verb “synchronize”(Line 2, Paragraph 4)probably means ______.

A. to cause to occur four days later

B. to cause to happen four days earlier

C. to happen beforehand or afterwards

D. to cause to happen at the same time

45. The calendar that most people nowadays familiar with was first adopted by ______.

A. the Christians  

B. the Pope 

C. Julius Caesar 

D. the Muslins

【答案与解析】

41.C  根据文章第一段最后两句话Did you know that our ideas about time are affected by religion? Different faiths use different types of calendars to measure time可知宗教信仰影响了我们计量时间的方式,接下来在文章里作者列举了不同的宗教信仰采取的不同计量时间的方式。

42.D  根据文章最后一段第二句话heir lunar calendar is based on the cycles of the moon可知阴历是以月亮的周期为基础的。

43.A  根据文章最后一句话Ramadan, their month-long fast可知斋月延续一个月。

44.D  根据文章可知,这种计时系统使得每四年多出一天,从而使每年的季节与日期同步,而不是每年天数相同,如果如此的话我们可以想象累计每一季节开始的时间将会和日期产生差距,可能导致春天开始时正是八月份。故可推测synchronize意为“同步”。

45.C  我们目前最常用的计时系统为阳历,根据第三段Julius Caesar, first adopted the solar calendar in 46 B.C.可知C选项正确。

Passage 6

For anyone who has experienced an earthquake, the experience can be frightening and traumatic. In addition to the movement of the ground, people need to be concerned with collapsing buildings and falling debris, such as flying glass. The majority of the injuries and deaths that occur from earthquakes are due to falling objects and structures. The effects of an earthquake can also cause dangerous landslides, fires, gas line and electric explosions, and floodwaters from collapsing dams. The goal of seismologists is to understand why earthquakes and other seismic activity on Earth. This information, when shared with people in earthquake-prone areas, can help decrease the number of deaths and injuries that may occur.

One of the most destructive effects of earthquakes is tsunami. Tsunamis, giant ocean waves, form after an earthquake has occurred on the ocean floor. If the tsunami crashes into land, it may cause serious destruction. The difficulty with protecting people from tsunamis is that they may come without warning and at an extremely high speed. Once undersea earthquakes occur, the ocean floor rises or sinks. This is when tsunamis may begin to form. Along with this shifting of the ocean floor, there is also a large mass of seawater that may drop or rise. To adjust to the sudden change in sea level, the mass of water moves upward or downward. As it is moving, a series of long, low waves begin to move from the point of the epicenter outward. These waves will increase in height as they come closer to the shore underwater landslides caused by earthquakes may also form tsunamis.

  On land, the focus of an earthquake’s destruction is usually buildings and property. Most of the buildings today are built using strict building codes. These codes require that the buildings can withstand the swaying motion of the ground during an earthquake. However, there are building with weak walls that may collapse completely during a quake. Extremely tall buildings, like skyscrapers, may sway so violently that they may tip over and cause damage to lower structures nearby. One factor that affects the intensity of an earthquake is the local geology. The type of land that is beneath buildings can determine the way the buildings respond to an earthquake. Buildings on solid ground are more likely to withstand an earthquake than buildings that are constructed on loose soil and rock. Likely rock and soil vibrate as if they were jelly. When buildings are constructed on this type of land, they tend to have an exaggerated motion and to sway violently.

46.This article is concerned with ______.

A. earthquakes only

B. tsunamis only

C. both earthquakes and tsunamis

D. various natural disasters

47.The word “seismologists”(Lin 6, Paragraph.1)refers to ______.

A. experts who are interested in buildings

B. people who act as rescuers when earthquakes occur

C. people who have the ability to predict tsunamis

D. experts who study earthquakes and related phenomena

48.The term “earthquake-prone area”(line 7, Paragraph 1)probably means ______.

A. a place where earthquakes are more likely to happen

B. a region where tsunamis are more likely to occur

C. an area that is more suitable for the construction of skyscrapers

D. a zone in which earthquakes are very unlikely to happen

49. According to the author, tsunamis are caused by ______.

A. extreme climatic change due to global warming

B. destruction of the balance of the ecology

C. earthquakes

D. rising sea level of the ocean as well as carbon dioxide emission

50. From the last paragraph of the article, we can infer that the intensity of an earthquake is closely related to ______.

A. structure of the buildings

B. solidity of the buildings

C. the height of the building

D. the local geology

【答案与解析】

46.C  根据文章内容可知,本文主要讲了地震,其中地震最具破坏力的后果是引发海啸,文中就海啸成因和破坏原理进行了阐述,故选C项。

47.D  根据文章第一段中The goal of seismologists is to understand why earthquakes and other seismic activity on Earth可知seismologists是研究地震发生原因和其他地震活动的。

48.A  根据文章This information, when shared with people in earthquake-prone areas, can help decrease the number of deaths and injuries that may occur可知,这些地方的人们在了解地震资料后,能有效减少地震带来的伤亡,故可推测这个地区是地震易发地区。

49.C  根据第二段Tsunamis, giant ocean waves, form after an earthquake has occurred on the ocean floor可知海啸是由海床地震引起的巨大波浪。

50.D  根据最后一段One factor that affects the intensity of an earthquake is the local geology可知选D项。

Part III  Translation(20%)

51. English-Chinese Translation(10%)

Directions: Translate the following into Chinese. And you must write your translation on your ANSWER SHEET II.

The opening of Disneyland in Shanghai will bring many associated investment opportunities. At least four economic sectors will benefit directly. First, property markets. Housing and commercial real estate prices around the Disneyland area are already rising. Second, the tourism sector. After the opening,analysts expect 3 to 5 million more tourists will visit Shanghai every year, bringing more business to hotels, travel agencies and retailers. Third, brand marketing will give a boost to toy manufacturers, publishers and the gaming industry. Fourth, construction companies and material suppliers will enjoy a huge increase,comparable to the 2010 Shanghai World Expo Disneyland’s first phase of construction is expected to cost 24 billion yuan.

【参考译文】

上海迪斯尼乐园的开放将带来大量相关投资机遇,至少会有四个经济行业从中直接受益。首先是房产市场。迪斯尼乐园附近的住房和商品地产价格已经开始上升。其次,旅游业。分析家预期在开放后每年到上海的游客将增加300万到500万,给宾馆、旅行社和零售商带来更多商机。第三,品牌营销将推进玩具制造业、出版商和游戏产业的发展。第四,建筑公司和原料供应商将迎来大幅增长,迪斯尼乐园的一期建筑预期花费240亿元,堪与2010上海世博会媲美。

【解析】

本篇文章以短句为主,翻译起来较为简单,唯一的长句为第六句“After the opening analysts expect …travel agencies and retailers.”,在翻译将主语analysts前置,其分析的内容全部置后,可保证句子语义完整。本文的翻译难点在于专业词汇的翻译,比如economic sector等,故在练习中积累相关词汇十分重要。

【文海拾贝】

economic sector  经济行业

property market  房产市场

commercial real estate  商品地产

give a boost  促进

brand marketing  品牌营销

comparable to  可比的,与…相当

52. Chinese-English Translation(10%)

Directions: Translate the following into English. And you must write your translation on your ANSWER AHEET II.

首先,额外的学习对孩子们的身体发育是不利的。教育专家指出,孩子们在枯燥的教室里呆了一整天后,从事一些体育活动,而不是额外的学习,是非常重要的。孩子们正处于身体快速发育时期,缺乏体育锻炼可能会对他们未来的生活造成严重的影响。第二,从心理上讲,大部分孩子似乎对额外的学习没有什么好感。当别人的孩子在玩耍的时候很难想象一个学生能把精力集中在课本上。而且,由于要额外的学习,孩子们没有多少时间和同龄的孩子玩耍和交流,很难培养他们的个性和交际能力。他们可能变得孤僻甚至产生某些心理疾病。通过以上讨论我们可以得出结论:尽管额外学习的确有很多优点,但它的缺点不可忽视,且远大于它的优点。因此,放学后强迫孩子额外学习是不明智的。任何家长都应非常重视孩子在学习与玩耍这两方面的平衡,正如那句老话:只工作,不玩耍,聪明的孩子会变傻。

【参考译文】

In the first place, extra studies bring about unhealthy impacts on physical growth of children. Educational experts point out that, it is equally important to take some sport activities instead of extra studies when children have spent the whole day in a boring classroom. Since children are undergoing fast physical development, lack of physical exercise may produce disastrous influence on their later life. In the second place, from psychological aspect, the majority of children seem to tend to have an unfavorable attitude toward additional educational activities. It is hard to imagine a student focusing their energy on textbook while other children are playing. Moreover, children will have less time to play and communicate with their peers due to extra studies, consequently, it is difficult to develop and cultivate their character and interpersonal skills. They may become more solitary and even suffer from certain mental illness. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that, although extra studies indeed enjoy many obvious advantages, its disadvantages shouldn’t be ignored and far outweigh its advantages. It is absurd to force children to take extra studies after school. Any parents should place considerable emphasis on their children to keep the balance between play and study. As an old saying goes: All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

【解析】

在做汉译英时,由于汉语句子常为块状结构,英语句子注重链接和逻辑,故在翻译过程中要注意句子结构和衔接,可通过增词、减词、替代、转换、使用连接词等手段实现句子间的衔接,使之符合英语表达习惯。比如第三句“孩子们正处于……造成严重的影响”实际上表达的是因果关系,故要在译文中体现出来,用Since一词进行衔接;第五句“当别人的孩子在玩耍的时候很难想象一个学生能把精力集中在课本上”,译文通过提前“很难想象”来改变句子结构,使之符合英语表达习惯,并且衔接流畅;第六句是个长句,是本段文章翻译的难点,首先分析句子结构,“孩子们没有……”是主句,前一句和后一句分别是原因和结果,译文巧用“due to”和“consequently”两词,起到了很好的连接作用。此外,译文行文简洁,例如在翻译“但它的缺点不可忽视,且远大于它的优点”时,译者用了两个并列动词“be ignored”和“outweigh”,忠实而形象地传达出原文意思。

【文海拾贝】

正处于身体快速发育时期  undergo fast physical development

造成严重的影响  produce disastrous influence

从心理上讲  from psychological aspect

没有什么好感  have an unfavorable attitude toward

精力集中在  focus their energy on

同龄的孩子  peers

交际能力  interpersonal skill

孤僻  solitary

只工作,不玩耍,聪明的孩子会变傻。All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

Part IV  Writing(30%)

53.Practical Writing(10%)

Directions: Write a note to your roommate Frank. Your note should contain about 80 English words. Remember that you are writing this note before leaving for Shanghai for three days. In your note, you should ask Frank to look after your pet dog Goofy while you are away. Your note to Frank should include the following information:

(a)You will fly to Shanghai in the evening;

(b)Apologize to Frank that you have to leave in a hurry;

(c)Ask Frank to look after Goofy;

(d)Tell Frank that the dog food is left in the store room;

(e)Remind Frank that Goofy does not like cold milk;

(f)Goofy likes to take walks in the evening;

(g)Let Frank know that you are grateful to him for looking after Goofy.

Write your note to Frank on your ANSWER SHEET II.

【参考范文】

April 1st

Dear Frank,

I will fly to Shanghai in the evening for three days and I am sorry to have to leave in such a hurry. Would you like to give me a favor to look after my pet dog Goofy while I am away? The dog food is left in the store room. Please remember that Goofy does not like cold milk. If you have time, Goofy likes to take walks in the evening. Thank you very much for looking after Goofy.

Yours always,

Mark

【解析】

便条是一种简单的书信,主要目的是为了尽快地把最新的信息、通知、要求或者活动的时间、地点转告给对方,语言尽量通俗口语化,简单扼要,直截了当,无需使用客套语言。各类便条必须包括以下几个基本要素:1)Date:便条日期;2)Salutation:称呼;3)Body:正文;4)Signature:署名。本文要求写留言条,主要内容也在题目要求中给出,只需用合适的方式将内容衔接在一起即可。

54.Essay Writing(20%)

Directions: Write an essay of about 200 words as your answer to the following question: “Should the Chinese Government pay more attention and invest more in education for children from the rural area?”

Write your essay on your ANSWER SHEET II.

【参考范文】

More Attention and Investment in Education for Children from the Rural Area

In China, for a long time, due to the restrictions of the natural environment, economic development and traditional ideas, China’s rural education is less developed than that in the city. Though the economy in rural areas has improved a lot, the situation of Chinese rural education is not optimistic, which needs more attention from Chinese government.

First and foremost, in most rural areas of China, the schools are underdeveloped and students must study under very hard conditions. When I was a voluntary teacher in a rural primary school, I saw many of my students take hours of precipitous mountain path to school. Secondly, Chinese rural schools face a serious shortage of teachers, especially competent teachers. What’s more, there is plenty of room for improvement in the rural education quality. These are several factors that restrict the development of rural education.

Since the low education level in the rural area contributes partly to the gap of living and the current situation of Chinese rural education is quite worrying, the Chinese government should pay more attention and invest more on rural education. Firstly, more funds should be invested in rural education infrastructure and teachers training. Secondly, Chinese government can call for college students or other qualified people to do voluntary teaching in these less developed areas. Thirdly, associated law system should be completed to facilitate rural education development. In addition, the whole society from citizens to the government and the international organizations should hang together and give their hands to take actions to help and solve the issue.

【解析】

  本文围绕“农村教育”问题展开论述。在首段,作者开门见山提出,长期以来,由于种种条件的制约,中国农村教育一直处于欠发达状态,政府应该注重这个问题。第二段,作者分别从三个方面分析了中国农村教育落后的原因,接着在第三段简短的总结之后,作者紧承前文从三个方面提出了解决方面,最后提出全民都应对此伸出他们的援助之手,升华了主题,完美收尾。本文论述充分,语言流畅,句式整齐有力,结构清晰,是一篇不可多得的范文。

【文海拾贝】

①traditional ideas  传统观念

②voluntary teacher  支教志愿者

③precipitous  陡峭的

④there is plenty of room for improvement in  还有待于大大提高

⑤call for  号召

⑥facilitate  使便利,减轻…的困难

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